OUR POLICE

A HISTORY

OF THE

BALTIMORE FORCE

Folsom

BALTIMORE 1888

...................................................................................................                                                                                                                                

OUR POLICE.

A HISTORY OF THE BALTIMORE FORCE

FROM THE FIRST WATCHMAN TO

THE LATEST APPOINTEE,

EDITED BY

d e F R A N C I A S FOLSOM.

ILLUSTRATED WITH PORTRAITS AND ETCHINGS.

BALTIMORE, MARYLAND.

18 88.

...................................................................................................                                                                                                                                

COPYRIGHT BY

J. M. BEERS.

PRINTED BY

J . D. E H L E R S & CO.

AND

GUQGENNEIMER, WEII, & CO.

...................................................................................................                                                                                                                                

PREFACE.

POLICEMEN are the heroes of peace as soldiers are heroes

of war. In many respects they are the soldiers' superiors. They

pass stricter examinations, they observe more rigid rules, and

their exploits are without the glory that attaches itself to military

life. Their duties- are proverbially exacting. They must run

constant physical risks and endure all kinds of weather. To

unfaltering patience and fortitude they must add personal bravery

of a high and continuous order. They must not only discover

crime but they must prevent it. They must not only arrest

criminals but they must protect the innocent by keeping track of

the wrong-doers, be a restraint upon the idle and vicious.

Whether a burglar-alarm sounds, a fire breaks out or a baby

gets lost, it is towards the policeman that all thoughts immediately

turn. They are our friends in danger, our protectors

always.

The police of many cities have marked characteristics,

but the Baltimore force occupies an enviable position, being a notably

able and efficient organization. It suppressed the riotous

elements that at one time ruled here and has made this city one

of the safest and most orderly in the world. One can venture into

any alley or street at any time of the day or night without fear

or harm. "Crooks" of all kinds are as shy of Baltimore as

they are of the penitentiary itself. The city is free from great

crimes. Everywhere order and safety prevail. To the police

the credit belongs.

The history of the police is to a large extent the history of

Baltimore. It embraces the careers of prominent citizens, the

accounts of important political changes, the interesting records of

criminal sensations, the full details of great events and all those

valuable incidents which the cut-and-dried historian in his prosy

(III)

...................................................................................................                                                                                                                                

TV PREFACE.

collection of dates and skeleton facts has either overlooked or disregarded.

In no volume have the police of Baltimore been given

the attention that by all the considerations of merit and importance

belongs to them. Nothing has been published in permanent

form to show the extent of their labors or to give the people an

adequate idea of their history and careers. This book, then, has

a large field all to itself and those who read it will be surprised

at the abundance of interesting fact and anecdote which is put forth

for the first time in its pages. It is a particularly fitting season to'

> give this material an enduring form. Many old policemen and

aged citizens whose reminiscences are priceless, are still alive to

tell of the old times. Valuable data procurable now will have

disappeared in a few years. The period now is when the police

force has reached a position of general and undoubted excellence,

and the history of its past—sometimes picturesque, sometimes

exciting and always interesting—must be written before the

records and the recollections have lost their freshness and

accuracy.

But it is not with the past alone that this volume concerns

itself' for in the story of the present it will show how little

the citizen realizes of the varied experiences of light and shadow,

the romance and the darker side of the familiar blue-coated

guardian's lot.

That the work will receive a kindly welcome is a hope that

should be shared by every friend of humanity's friend—the

Policeman.

...................................................................................................                                                                                                                                

CONTENTS.

PREFACE, ill

LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS, - - - - - - - - - - xiv

ROSTER OF THE FORCE, - - - - - 533

INDEX, - - - - 544

CHAPTER I.

BALTIMORE'S EARLIEST OFFICERS.

(1606-1784.)

DISCOVERY AND SETTLEMENT OF THE PATAPSCO.—"WHETSTONE

POINT" MADE A TOWN AND PORT OF ENTRY (1706). — THE

TOWN OF BALTIMORE CREATED (1729).—THE EARLY CONSERVATORS

OF THE PEACE.—THE SHERIFF, CONSTABLES AND

PUBLIC EXECUTIONER.—AN OFFICE NOT SOUGHT AFTER.—A

CASE IN POINT WHERE THE OFFICE SOUGHT THE MAN.

CRUEL PUNISHMENTS INFLICTED ON MALEFACTORS.—BRANDING

WITH IRONS. THE PILLORY, STOCKS AND DUCKING-STOOLS.

BALTIMORE'S PILLORY AND WHIPPING-POST AT THE OLD

COURT HOUSE. , - Pp. 1 - 14

CHAPTER II.

(1784-1853.)

THE GUARDIANS OF THE TOWN ORGANIZED BY LEGISLATIVE

ENACTMENT.—ALL MANNER OF TAXES TO SUPPORT THE PEACE

OFFICERS.—AT THE CLOSE OF THE REVOLUTION.—BALTIMORE

BECOMES A CITY.—INCREASING THE NUMBER OF WATCHMEN.

ESTABLISHMENT OF WATCH-HOUSES AND ERECTION OF CELLS.

THE POLICE FORCE IN 1848. Pp. 1 5 - 2 3

vii

...................................................................................................                                                                                                                                

Till CONTENTS.

CHAPTER III.

(1853-1860.)

THE REORGANIZATION OE THE FORCE.—THE DUTIES OE ITS

OFFICERS.—FOUR POLICE DISTRICTS AND THREE HUNDRED

AND FIFTY PATROLMEN.—NO LONGER HIGH CONSTABLE, BUT

MARSHAL. FIRST POLICE HEADQUARTERS. THE PAY AND

UNIFORM.—THE POLICE AND THE MAGISTRATES.—NO PUNISHMENT

OF CRIME.—THE REORGANIZATION OF 1860.—MARSHAL

KANE AND HIS ADMINISTRATION. - - - - - Pp. 2 4 - 44

CHAPTER IV.

CIVIL WAR AND THE NEW FORCE.

THE ENTRANCE OF THE NORTHERN TROOPS.—MARSHAL KANE'S

PRECAUTIONS. PROTECTING THE MILITARY. THE MARCH

THROUGH THE STREETS. "KEEP BACK, MEN, OR I'LL SHOOT."

—THE COMMISSIONERS AND MARSHAL ARRESTED.—UNDER

MILITARY RULE. THE RIVAL POLICE BOARDS. GOOD ORDER

AGAIN.—THE REORGANIZATION OF 1867.—THE FIRST BOARD.

Pp. 45-74

CHAPTER V.

FLOOD OF 1868, AND RIOT OF 1877.

BALTIMORE INUNDATED.—BRAVE WORK BY POLICEMEN.—COMMISSIONER

CARR'S GALLANTRY.—HIS TERRIBLE EXPERIENCE

IN THE FLOOD AND HIS RESCUE.—POLICEMF.N WHO AIDED

THE DESTITUTE.—THE POLICE SPECIAL 1'UNI AND ITS DISPOSITION

BY THE COMMISSIONERS. THE CD KGES IN THE

BOARD.—THE RIOTS OF 1877, AND THE MORA1 VHEY TAUGHT.

—THE POLICE FORCE IN 1885. PP. 7 5 - 1 16

...................................................................................................                                                                                                                                

CONTENTS. ix

CHAPTER VI.

THE PRESENT POLICE COMMISSIONERS.

HOW THE BOARD IS NOW CONSTITUTED.—ITS DUTIES AND RESPONSIBILITIES.—

HOW THE COMMISSIONERS CARE FOR THE

MEMBERS OP THE FORCE.—SKETCH OF PRESIDENT EDSON M.

SCHRYVER.—TREASURER ALFRED J. CARR'S DUTIES AND

ACHIEVEMENTS AS COMMISSIONER.—INCIDENTS IN HIS CAREER.

—COMMISSIONER JOHN QUINCY ADAMS ROBSON'S LIFE AND

HIS SERVICES TO THE STATE OF MARYLAND.—A SKETCH OF

SECRETARY GEORGE SAVAGE. - - - - - - PP. 1 1 7 - 1 47

CHAPTER VII.

THE MARSHAL.

THE INTERESTING CAREER OF MARSHAL FREY.—ONE OF THE

BRAVEST AND BEST KNOWN OFFICERS *IN THE COUNTRY.

THE CONSPICUOUS CRIMES HE HAS UNEARTHED.—HOLLOHAN'S

MURDEROUS ATTACK UPON HIM.—HIS MAGNANIMITY AND HIS

COOLNESS IN DANGER.—INCREASING THE EFFICIENCY OF THE

SOUTHERN DISTRICT POLICE.—THE ATTACK ON MRS. SARRACCO.—

THE WHARTON-KETCHUM POISONING CASE.—THE

MURDER OF MRS. LAMPLEY.—THE CUMBERLAND RIOTS AND

MR. FREY'S BRAVERY.—HOW HE CONTROLLED THE MOB.—

A RAID ON THE BALTIMORE BANKS BY FORGERS.—THE

UNGER-BOHLE TRUNK CASE. - - - - - - PP. 1 4 8 - 1 75

CHAPTER VIII.

DEPUTY MARSHAL JOHN LANNAN.

HIS RISE FROM PATROLMAN TO DEPUTY MARSHAL.—A TRIP TO

CHINA.—THE MINNESOTA AND A TYPHOON.—CLEARING OUT

DISHONEST SERVANTS.—RUNNING DOWN NEW JERSEY BURGLARS.—

A MURDERER IDENTIFIED INTUITIVELY.—THE RATS

...................................................................................................                                                                                                                                

X CONTENTS.

HAD GNAWED HIS HANDCUFFS.—THE RIOTS OF 1877.—THE

CENTRAL STATION A HOSPITAL.—THREE DAYS AND NIGHTS

CONTINUOUS SERVICE.—A VERY SHARP NEGRO.—A DEPUTY

MARSHAL'S DIAMOND BADGE.—THE ONLY BURKING CASE IN

AMERICA. - - - - - Pp. 176-211

CHAPTER IX.

THE DETECTIVE FORCE.

ORGANIZATION OF THE SECRET SERVICE.—CHIEF DETECTIVE

CRONE.—CAPTAIN CADWALLADER.—CAPTAIN SOLOMON II. FREBURGER.—

WHAT SOME OF THE MEN HAVE DONE.—JOHN S.

PONTIER.—DETECTIVE CUNNING AND PLUCK.—ROBBING HARNDEN'S

EXPRESS.—JOSEPH C. MITCHELL.—AN EXPERT LOCKSMITH.—

THE ARREST OF HERR GOLDBACH.—A ROMANCE AT

BARNUM'S HOTEL.—THEODERICK B. HALL.—REAL AND BOGUS

DETECTIVES. - - Pp. 212-231

CHAPTER X.

THE DETECTIVE FORCE.—Continued.

ALBERT GAULT.—A REMARKABLE RECORD.—QUICK WORK WITH

SKILLFUL BURGLARS.—RESCUING FROM THE FLOOD.—CLEVER

CAPTURE OF JOHN KING.—CHRISTINE ELBRIGHT.—ARREST OF

TOLLIVER HARRIS, THE NEGRO TERROR OF VIRGINIA.—AMONG

THE MOONSHINERS.—TERRIBLE CONFLICT WITH AN ESCAPED

PRISONER.—DETECTIVE GEORGE W. SEIBOLD.—RISEN FROM

THE RANKS.—PURSUING THE CONFIDENCE MEN.—A COLORED

FEMALE FAGIN.—THEIR CHILD RESTORED AFTER EIGHT YEARS.

—A PRIESTLY SWINDLER.—DETECTIVE SEIBOLD AS A FAKIR.—

CLEVER WORK IN ELLICOTT CITY.—BARN BURNING IN HOWARD

COUNTY.—HOW AN AGED TRAMP REPAID FARMER RHINE'S

KINDNESS. - Pp. 235-275

...................................................................................................                                                                                                                                

CONTENTS. SI

CHAPTER XI.

THE DETECTIVE FORCE. (Concluded)

WILLIAM HENRY DROSTE.—THE LAST WORK ON THE MERRIMAC.

A BAD EXPERIENCE AS A BLOCKADE-RUNNER. THE

EMANCIPATION CELEBRATION. — A BOGUS BILL-OF-LADING

THIEF. CATCHING THREE FORGERS. THOMAS BARRANGER.

PURSUING A CONVICT.—A DEAF MUTE AS A HORSE-THIEF.—

CAPTURING CHARLES H. HOCH. STEPHEN J. O'NEILL. FETTERED

BY STOLEN GOODS.—A YOUNG BUT NOTORIOUS BURGLAR.—

A STRUGGLE TO THE FINISH.—AQUILLA J. PUMPHREY.—

A CASE OF MUTUAL SUSPICION.—SWINDLING AS A MISSIONARY.—

JOHN E. REILLY.—A BRAVE DEED.—COMPLIMENTED

' BY THE DEPARTMENT. - - - - - - - - Pp. 2 7 6 - 3 02

CHAPTER XII.

COMMANDERS OF DISTRICTS.

ANCIENT AND MODERN HISTORY. THE LATE CAPTAIN WILLIAM

DELANTY. CAPTAIN FARNAN OF THE CENTRAL DISTRICT.

THE ASSAULT ON CAPTAIN CLAYTON.—MURDER OF LOUIS

SCHMIDT.—TOOK HIM TO THE STATION DESPITE THE MOB.—

CAPTAIN CADWALLADER OF THE WESTERN DISTRICT.—THE

KILLING OF HENRY MESNBRING.—HOW MURDERER FOSTER

WAS ARRESTED.—DETECTING THE MURDERERS OF DOUGLASS

LOVE. HE CUT HIS NECK " I N HALF." CAPTAIN AULD OF

THE EASTERN DISTRICT. RUNNING DOWN A GANG OF BURGLARS.—

THE RIOTS OF 1861.—AN EXPERT CHECK SWINDLER.

Pp. 303-360

...................................................................................................                                                                                                                                

xii CONTENTS.

CHAPTER XIII.

COMMANDERS OF DISTRICTS (Concluded.)

CAPTAIN CLAIBORNE OF THE SOUTHERN DISTRICT. NAILING THE

FLAG TO FORT SUMPTER'S STAFF.—A RECORD TO BE PROUD

OF. CAPTAIN EARHART OF THE NORTH-WESTERN DISTRICT.

DRIVING OUT THE "GANGS." HARRY GILMOR'S SPURS.—

STRONGEST MAN ON THE FORCE—CAPTAIN BAKER OF THE SOUTHWESTERN

DISTRICT.—A DASTARDLY CRIME.—THE MURDER OF

EMELINE MILLER.—CAPTURING BOARDING HOUSE THIEVES.—

CAPTAIN BARBER OF THE NORTH-EASTERN DISTRICT. HIS

CARE FOR PRISONERS.—A ROBBER'S SHREWDNESS—STEALING

TWENTY-FIVE THOUSAND SHOESTRINGS. - - Pp. 3 6 1 - 4 22

CHAPTER XIV.

THE POLICE GYMNASIUMS.

THE LACK OF AMBITION IN THE OLD FORCE.—AN INCIDENT IN

SCALING FENCES. FIRST ORGANIZATION IN THE CENTRAL

DISTRICT. STARTING A GYMNASIUM WITH $ 1 0 0 . ENGAGING

PROFESSOR KIMBALL. SOCIETY AND ATHLETICS COMBINED.

THE FIRST EXHIBITION A GREAT SUCCESS. INTERIOR OF

THE CENTRAL STATION GYMNASIUM. IN THE NORTH-WESTERN

GYMNASIUM. CAPTAIN EARHART AS AN ATHLETE, AND HIS

FONDNESS FOR HEAVY WEIGHTS. HOW A FINE EXERCISING

HALL WAS FURNISHED.—THE EASTERN DISTRICT EXERCISING

HALLS, BOTH OLD AND NEW. A FINE GYMNASIUM FROM A

SMALL BEGINNING.—THE NORTH-EASTERN ATHLETES AT WORK.—

ORGANIZING A POLICE ASSOCIATION, AND ITS LIST OF RULES.

WHAT ATHLETICS HAS DONE FOR OUR POLICE. P P . 4 2 3 - 4 6 1

...................................................................................................                                                                                                                                  

CONTENTS. X l l l

CHAPTER XV.

THE PATROL-WAGON SYSTEM.—THE TELEPHONE AND ALARM

TELEGRAPH. MR. COLTON'S AND MARSHAL GRAY'S TRIP TO

CHICAGO. ADVANTAGES OF THE SYSTEM. THE HARBOR

PATROL.—ITS WORK AND THE RESULTS OF IT.—POLICE CHARITIES

AND THE NOBLE WORK OF THE MEMBERS OF THE

FORCE. THE LIFE INSURANCE ASSOCIATION. - P P . 4 6 2 - 4 8 5

CHAPTER XVI.

CHARLES BECKER, THE FORGER.

LITTLE CARL ON THE BANKS OF THE SPREE.—IN AMERICA.

LEARNING TO ENGRAVE.—IN LOVE WITH CLARA BECHTEL.

AN OMINOUS WISH. THE FIRST CRIME. ROBBING THE BALTIMORE

THIRD NATIONAL BANK VAULT. IN A TURKISH

PRISON. THE ESCAPE AND THE MURDER OF MRS. CHAPMAN.

SWINDLING THE UNION TRUST COMPANY. A SCHEME TO DEFRAUD

THE EUROPEAN CONTINENT. THE 1 , 0 0 0 FRANC NOTE

FORGERY. FOR NEARLY SIX YEARS A PRISONER. " YES,

PET, I'LL TRY TO BE GOOD." - - - - - Pp. 486-509-

CHAPTER XVII.

A FORGERS' RAID.

THE HISTORY OF THE OPERATIONS OF BROCKWAY'S GANG OF

FORGERS IN BALTIMORE IN 1880.—REMARKABLE CONSPIRACY

TO ROB THE CITY'S GREAT BANKING INSTITUTIONS. THE

SWINDLERS GET AWAY WITH MORE THAN $10,000 FROM TWO

BANKS.—PURSUIT AND CAPTURE OF THE CRIMINALS.—THE

FORGERS IN PRISON AT LAST.—THE DROP GAME. P p . 5 1 0 - 5 32

...................................................................................................                                                                                                                                

ILLUSTRATIONS.

FRONTISPIECE—MARSHALS OF BALTIMORE.

The Ducking-Stool 8

The Tillory and Whipping-Post 9

Old Watchman and His Box 14

Charles Howard 31

William H. Gatchell 35

Charles D. Hinks 39

Hon. George William Brown 47

Hon. John W. Davis 51

Samuel Hindes 55

Nicholas L. Wood .'. 59

William T. Valiant 63

James Young 63

Lefevre Jarrett 67

Hon. William EL B. Fusselbaugh 71

Hon. James K. Carr 77

Thomas W. Morse 85

John Milroy 89

Col. Harry Gilmor 93

Gen. Jas. B. Herbert 97

Hon. George Colton 101

Maj. J. D. Ferguson.. 105

John T.Gray Ill

Edson Marion Schryver, President of the Board of Police Commissioners 121

Alfred J. Carr, Esq., Treasurer of the Board of Police Commissioners 127

J . Q. A. Kobson, Police Commissioner 139

George Savage, Esq 143

Jacob Frey, Marshal of Police 149

John Lannan, Deputy Marshal 177

Rogues' Gallery 213

William Delanty 305

John Mitchell 305

George W. Zimmerman 305

Thomas F. Farnan, Captain Central District 309

Old Middle District Station-IIouse 314

James II. Busick, Lieutenant Central District 320

Frank J. Toner, Sergeant Central District 320

James Harvey, Sergeant Central District 320

Louis Kirsch, Sergeant Central District 320

xiv

...................................................................................................                                                                                                                                

ILLUSTRATIONS. XV

Martin P. Schimp, Sergtant Central District 320

William Barker, Sergeant Central District 320

W. B. Bcve, Sergeant Central District 320

Henry Shoemack, Sergeant Central District 320

"William H. Frazier, Lieutenant Central District 321

W.G.Scott, Sergeant Central District 321

Jas. A. Kippard, Sergeant Central District 321

Edward F. Meehan, Sergeant Central District 321

Ambrose A. Ryan, Sergeant .' ...Central District 321

J. J. Gilbert, Sergeant Central District 321

Charles Bernhardt, Sergeant Central District 321

George Clautice, Sergeant Central District 321

Lewis W. Cadwallader, Captain Western District 327

First Western District Station-House 334

F. Hamilton Scott, Lieutenant Western District 338

J. H. Clowe, Sergeant Western District • 338

William Kalbfleisch, Sergeant .....Western District 338

John Driscoll, Sergeant Western District 338

Benj. T. Allen, Sergeant Western District 338

Philip Berger, Sergeant Western District 338

John Joseph Fullem, Lieutenant Western District 339

J. H. Henneman, Sergeant Western District 339

Patrick E. Tierney, Sergeant Western District 339

Philip Whalen, Sergeant Western District 339

E. J. Hoffman, Sergeant Western District 339

Benj. F. Auld, Captain Eastern District 343

William R. Johnson, Lieutenant Eastern District 354

Michael F. Black, Sergeant '. Eastern District 354

J'. Andrew Roycroft, Sergeant Eastern District 354

Francis W. Jones, Sergeant Eastern District 354

Daniel E. Diggs, Sergeant Eastern District 354

Jas. K. P. Langley, Sergeant Eastern District 354

George League, Lieutenant Eastern District 355

Edward Schleigh, Sergeant Eastern District 355

Henry Poole, Sergeant Eastern District 355

Thos. T. Green, Sergeant Eastern District 355

Thos. E. Buckless, Sergeant , Eastern District 355

Station-House Clerks 358

Charles H. Claiborne, Captain Southern District 363

Geo. W. Aaron 367

W. H. Cassell 367

Benj. F. Kenney 367

Daniel Lepson 367

Calvin Sunstrom, Lieutenant Southern District 372

Philip Flood, Sergeant Southern District 372

Henry Streib, Sergeant, Southern District 372

...................................................................................................                                                                                                                                  

Xvi ILLUSTRATIONS.

Bernard Ward, Sergeant

George Dull, Sergeant

John A. Parks, Sergeant

A. C. Blacldston, Sergeant

David H. Bruchey, Lieutenant

W. H. Bowen, Sergeant

Louis Chaillou, Sergeant

Thomas B. McGee, Sergeant

Peter Kiley, Sergeant

Jos. D. Collins, Sergeant

Edward Schultz, Sergeant

Wm. C. Bayne, Sergeant

George W. Earhart, Captain

Wm. McK. Watkins, Lieutenant...

John B. Saunders, Sergeant

Cornelius L. Knott, Sergeant

John A. G. Schultz, Sergeant

Littleton B. Wessels, Sergeant

Matthew E. Quinn, Sergeant

Frank J. Flannery, Lieutenant

Charles P. Dorn, Sergeant

John Carlos, Sergeant

Daniel H. Cline, Sergeant

Theo. J. Foster, Sergeant

John Baker, Captain

Thomas A. Fitzgerald, Lieutenant.

Timothy A. Broderick, Sergeant....

Chas. A. Shoemaker, Sergeant

Michael Lanahan, Sergeant

C. H. Williamson, Sergeant

Harvey P. Morhiser, Sergeant

William B. Minor, Lieutenant

John Butler, Sergeant

Wm. T. Russell, Sergeant

Peter Montague, Sergeant

Henry C. Smith, Sergeant

Philip J. Barber, Captain

Daniel Shettle, Lieutenant

Wm. J. Carrick, Sergeant

Basil S. Wellener, Jr., Sergeant

F. T. Crate, Sergeant

P. F. J. Bosch, Sergeant

Jas. H. Carroll, Lieutenant

Thos. F. Hogan, Sergeant

Augustus Chaillou, Sergeant

George William Schafer. Sergeant

.Southern District 372

.Southern Distric 372

.Southern District 372

.Southern District 372

.Southern District 373

.Southern District 373

.Southern District 373

.Southern District 373

.Southern District 373

.Southern District 373

.Southern District 373

.Southern District 373

.North-western District 377

.North-western District 386

North-western District 386

North-western District 386

.North-western District 386

.North-western District 386

North-western District 386

.North-western District 387

North-western District 387

.North-western District 387

.North-western District 387

.North-western District 387

.South-western District 393

.South-western District 402

.South-western District 402

.South-western District 402

.South-western District 402

.South-western District 402

.South-western District 402

.South-western District 403

.South-western District 403

.South-western District 403

.South-western District 403

.South-western District 403

.North-eastern District 407

.North-eastern District 418

North-eastern District 418

.North-eastern District 418

.North-eastern District 418

.North-eastern District 418

.North-eastern District 419

.North-eastern District 419

.North-eastern District 419

.North-eastern District 419

...................................................................................................                                                                                                                                

ILLUSTRATIONS. XVU

Benj. "VV. York, Sergeant North-eastern District 419

Henry Mittendorf, Sergeant North-eastern District 419

Central Station Gymnasium 430

In the Gymnasium Central Diitrict 435

North-Western Gymnasium Athletes 440

Police Athletic Club, North-eastern District Champions, 1887 451

Central District Police Base Ball Club 457

Police Patrol Signal Box, Baltimore and Charles Streets 465

Police Patrol Signal Box, with Officer Signalling Station 467

Central Station Outfit—Police Patrol Service 471

Police Patrol Wagon Central District 475

Police Patrol Wagon Eastern District 480

Police Patrol Wagon Western District 482

Bank Burglars' Outfit 496

...................................................................................................                                                                                                                                  

ANNOUNCEMENT.

The historical material for this work was obtained chiefly

from the official records of the police department, though

much information was had from other sources.

For the early history the writer has drawn on the records of

the legislative assemblies and city councils, other historical

works, old guide-books, directories and papers which were

placed at his disposal.

To the ex-commissioners and ex-marshals who are now

residents of Baltimore, the writer is under obligations for

much information, and also to the present Board of Police

Commissioners and Marshal Jacob Frey, for like assistance, as

well as the means to verify the correctness of the work.

The illustrations are mainly " I v e s " etchings, and were

reproduced from photographs. The groups of officers are

from negatives from the studio of N. H. Busey, who, with

Jas. S. Cummins, W. Cetz and others, made the photographs

from which the portraits were obtained.

BALTIMORE, January 1, 1888

...................................................................................................                                                                                                                                

OUR POLICE.

A HISTORY OF THE BALTIMORE FORCE FROM THE FIRST WATCHMAN

TO THE LATEST APPOINTEE.

an AFTER i.

BALTIMORE'S EARLIEST OFFICERS.

(1606-1784.)

DISCOVERY AND SETTLEMENT OF THE PATAPSCO. "WHETSTONE

POINT " MADE A TOWN AND PORT OF ENTRY (1706). THE

TOWN OF BALTIMORE CREATED (1729). THE EARLY CONSERVATORS

OF THE PEACE. THE SHERIFF, CONSTABLES AND

PUBLIC EXECUTIONER. AN OFFICE NOT SOUGHT AFTER. A

CASE IN POINT WHERE THE OFFICE SOUGHT THE MAN.—

CRUEL PUNISHMENTS INFLICTED ON MALEFACTORS. BRANDING

WITH IRONS. THE PILLORY, STOCKS AND DUCKING-STOOLS.

—BALTIMORE'S PILLORY AND WHIPPING-POST AT THE OLD

COURT HOUSE.

Baltimore's police and Baltimore's history are inseparable.

To treat of the former the latter must also be developed, more

particularly where it touches and affects the rise of the police

system, showing how the force of to-day kept pace with the

progress of Baltimore from the time it was but a little scattering

hamlet under the cliffs and among the marshes along the

banks of the Patapsco, down to the present, when, as a mighty

metropolis she takes her place in the foremost rank of great

American cities. It will be of interest to revert to those early

days in her history and see from what small beginnings great

results come.

The eyes of the white man first rested on the site of Baltimore

in 1606. In that year Captain John Smith " some time

Governor of Virginia," made his sixth voyage cf discovery

(1)

...................................................................................................                                                                                                                                

2 OUR POLICE.

and penetrated the Patapsco river. Twenty-two years later Lord

Baltimore cast a careless glance over the land on which it was

destined would arise a city, the greatness of which should become

a mighty monument to his name and fame. This was in the year

1628, when Lord Baltimore at the time of his visit to Virginia

explored the country now called Maryland, and which was afterwards,

on June 20, .1632, conferred upon him by royal charter.

In the year 1634, Leonard Calvert, who had been appointed

Lieutenant-General and Governor of Maryland by his brother,

Lord Baltimore, together with another brother, George Calvert,

and about two hundred colonists, arrived in the new

province and settled at St. Mary's.

It was not, however, until the year 1659 that any steps were

taken towards the systematic settlement of Baltimore county,

although it is not unlikely that some of the more adventurous

spirits, following in the track of Captain John Smith and

Lord Baltimore, had pushed ahead and settled about the head

waters of the Patapsco. In the year named Baltimore county

was established. Its limits, as then fixed, were far more

extensive than at present and embraced all of Harford and Carroll

counties and large portions of Anne Arundel, Howard and

Frederick. At that time the entire population of Maryland was

about twelve thousand and that of the newly created county but

about two thousand.

In the month of July, 1659, patents for land in the neighborhood

of Baltimore were issued to Robert Gorsuch, Hugh

Kensey, Richard Gorsuch, Thomas Humphreys, John Jones,

Thomas Powell, Howell Powell, William Ball, and Walter

Dickinson, each of whom was granted from 200 to 500

acres. Captain Thomas Howell, Captain Thomas Stockett

and Messrs. Henry Stockett and John Taylor, Commissioners

of the county, took up patents, and on July 20, 166L

held a court at the house of Captain Howell who was the presiding

Commissioner. Mr. John Collett was their clerk.

Charles Gorsuch, a member of the society of Friends, was

the next settler to take up ground, and he on February 24,

1661, patented 50 acres. This land afterwards, on June 2,

...................................................................................................                                                                                                                                

OUR POLICE. 3

1702, passed into the possession of Mr. James Carroll, who

called it ' : Whetstone Point." On the extremity of this stands

Fort McHenry. In 1668, ''Cole's Harbor," consisting of 550

acres, divided into nearly two equal parts by the stream,

" Jones' Falls," was granted to Thomas Cole. On this land

the town of Baltimore was originally laid out.

So the infant settlement continued to grow. Each year added

new settlers to the number who took up their plantations. The

principal planters were also merchants who traded with London

and other ports of England, and the large plantations, with their

groups of storehouses and other buildings, assumed the appearance

arid performed the office of little towns. Many of the earliest

courts and councils were held in these plantations. The

governors, privy-councilors and county court judges were all

planters.

For a long time " Cole's Harbor" afforded ample space for the

accommodation of Baltimore but the settlement gradually extended

its limits until all the surrounding lands and farms,

under various names, were finally taken into its boundaries. In

1706, by Act of Assembly, "Whetstone Point" was made a town

and declared a port of entry, the first within the present limits

of Baltimore.

The following year, " Taylor's Choice," on Gunpowder river,

was made a town, and the county seat of Baltimore county. A

court-house was built and the name changed to Joppa.

Up to 1729, no name had been given the settlement upon the

northwestern branch of the Patapsco. In that year its inhabitants

emulating the example of some of their neighbors, desired

the village to be erected into a town. " Moales Point" was first

selected as the preferable site of the future city but the projectors

were disappointed, fortunately, in securing this location,

the bill having that object in view being defeated in the Legislature

through the instrumentality of Mr. John Moale, a member

and the owner of the land in question. Being excluded from

this, the land of their choice, those interested in forming the

new town were driven to seek the site for the future metropolis

under the hills and amid the marshes of the northwestern branch

...................................................................................................                                                                                                                                  

4 OUR POLICE.

of the river. Accordingly a petition was prepared for the Assembly

by the County Commissioners or justices, and other persons

which, on July 14, 1729, was presented in the Upper House,

" praying that a bill may be brought in for the building of a town

on the north side of Patapsco river, upon the land supposed to

belong to Messrs. Charles and Daniel Carroll." On August 8,

1729, the bill prayed for became a law under this title,

" An Act for erecting a town on the north side of Patapsco, in

Baltimore county, and for laying out in lots, sixty acres of land,

in and about the place where one John Fleming now lives."

The commissioners appointed to lay out the town were Major

Thomas Tolley, William Hamilton, William Buckner, Dr. George

Walker, Richard Gist, Dr. George Buchanan and Colonel William

Hammond. They were all justices of the county except Dr.

Walker. These commissioners were practically appointed for life,

as they were empowered to fill their own vacancies. They were

authorized to purchase sixty acres of land on the tract known as

"Cole's Harbor," and to lay out the same into sixty equal lots

to be erected into a town. In January of the following year this

was done and the commissioners, assisted by Philip Jones the

county surveyor, laid off the town, whose original bounds made

the form of an ancient lyre.

The town was divided by Long, now called Baltimore street,

which was intersected at right-angles by Calvert street, then not

named; and Forrest street now Charles street. There were

also six lanes, which are now South, Second, Light, Hanover and

Belvidere streets, and three other lanes which retain their

original names of Lovely, St. Paul and German streets.

On January 14, the office of the commissioners was opened

for "taker's-up," the proprietor, Mr. Carroll, choosing lot No.

49 on the east side of Calvert street, next the river bank, Mr.

Gist taking one on the opposite side of Calvert street. Among

the others taking lots were Messrs. Walker, Jones, Jackson,

Hammond, Price, Buckner, Sheridine, Powell, Ridgely, Trotten,

North, Hewitt, Gorsuch, and Harris—all inhabitants of the

vicinity. Thus was the embryo city started upon its career.

The peace and good order of the new town was for many years

...................................................................................................                                                                                                                                

OUR POLICE. 5

entrusted wholly to the officers charged with that duty throughout

the county. These were Commissioners of the County or Justices

of the Peace, and were also Justices of the County Court; a

tithing-man in each manor, a constable in each hundred, a sheriff

and coroner in the county and a public executioner for inflicting

all corporal correction and punishment.

The Justices of the Peace or Commissioners of the County,

terms used synonymously, forming the County Court, were

appointed by the Lord Proprietary or in his absence by his

Lieutenant-General. The tithing-man, whose duties were those

of a petty constable, was appointed by the Lord of the Manor,

and the High Constables of every hundred by the Commander

of the hundred. It was the duty of the constable to execute

all precepts and warrants to him directed, and had in all

things "the like power and authority within the said hundred as a

high constable of any hundred in England hath or ought to have

within his hundred by the law or custom of England." A refusal

to serve incurred the forfeiture of five hundred pounds of tobacco,

the currency of those days. The Chief Judge of the County

Court appointed the sheriff and coroner of the county, one person

discharging the functions of both offices. The penalty of

a refusal to discharge these responsible duties was the forfeiture

of two thousand pounds of tobacco. The appointment to the

least desirable office within the county, that of public executioner,

was thus provided for: "And the said sheriff shall choose

one of his servants (and in case he hath no servant to accept

thereof, the Lieutenant-General and Council shall appoint some

person) for the execution of all corporal correction, shame or

other punishment to be inflicted on the body or person of any

one; and if the person so chosen and appointed by the Lieutenant-

General and Council shall refuse to execute the said office,

the Lieutenant-General, upon complaint thereof made unto him,

shall or may censure (a term applied to the speech of the Judge

in giving his judgment in any criminal case) the person so refusing

by corporal shame or correction as he shall think fit."

That it was difficult to fill this office notwithstanding the pains

and penalties attached to a refusal, appears by the following,

...................................................................................................                                                                                                                                

6 OUR POLICE.

where a malefactor is appointed to the post as one of the punishments

for his crimes.

The Assemby in addition to its legislative powers sometimes

exercised judicial functions. At one of the early sessions of that

body the Secretary of State had, on the first day of the session,

issued his writ to the "Sheriff of St. Mary's," to "have the

body of John Dandie, smith, before the House of Assembly at

nine of the clock this morning, to answer such crimes as on his

lordship's behalf shall be objected against him." What these

"crimes" were does not appear, but sentence of death

was passed upon the unlucky smith. On May 10, "upon

the petition of a great part of the colony for the pardoning

of Dandie, the Governor exchanged the sentence of death

into three years' service to the Lord Proprietary; wherewith

the said Dandie was well content"—the record gravely

concludes. By a subsequent document, a further pardon

for John Dandie, it appears that in addition to his three years

service, one of the conditions attached to the commutation of his

death sentence was that he act as public executioner, the record

reading as follows: "Amongst other penalties he was adjudged

to be a public executioner within this province, but, for his good

service and particular fidelity to Governor Calvert, he was thereby

remitted from all former penalties whatsoever."

A disinclination to perform the duties of the public executioner

is not surprising when some of the penalties to be inflicted upon

transgressors in those days are known. By "An Act for felonies,"

introduced into the Assembly in 1639, the following

offences were to be adjudged felonies, punishable with death :

" Homicide; bloodshed, committed by assault upon the person

of the Lieutenant-General; to shed the blood of any Judge sitting

in Court; burglary, robbery, polygamy, sacrilege, sorcery,

petit treason and rape." It was also made "felony within this

province to commit idolatry, which is the worshipping of a false

god;" or to commit "blasphemy, which is a cursed or wicked

speaking of God;" or " to sell, give, or deliver to any Indian, or

to any other declared or professed enemy of the province, any

gun, pistol, powder or shot, without the knowledge or license of

...................................................................................................                                                                                                                                

OUR POLICE. 7

the Lieutenant-General, or to teach any Indian or other declared

enemy of the province the use of the said arms or the making

thereof."

The offender in any of these felonies was to suffer the pains of

death by hanging and forfeit to the Lord Proprietary all the

lands in the province whereof he was seized at the time the offence

was committed and all goods and chattels which he possessed at

the time of his conviction: " Provided," the law goes on to state,

" that in petit treason the punishment of death shall be inflicted

by drawing and hanging of a man and by burning of a woman;

and in sorcery, blasphemy and idolatry by burning." Accessories

before the fact were to be punished as principals.

Of the minor offences, the Justices of the Peace were given

jurisdiction and the power to deal with the offenders summarily.

Among these was " withdrawing one's self out of an English

plantation to inhabit or reside among any Indians not christened,"

for which the offender could be imprisoned until he found

" security to perform the order of the Judge therein." Swearing

was punished by a fine of five pounds of tobacco or one shilling,

sterling; drunkenness, "which is drinking with excess to the

notable perturbation of any organ of sense or motion," entailed

a fine of thirty pounds of tobacco or five shillings, sterling, " or

otherwise shall be whipped, or by some other corporal shame or

punishment corrected for every such excess, at the discretion of

the Judge."

The law of 1723, which embodied the substance of several

previous laws on the subject of blasphemy, provided that the

offender who should be convicted of this crime, consisting of

wittingly, maliciously and advisedly, by writing or speech, blaspheming

or cursing God or denying the Saviour's divinity, the

Trinity of the Godhead of any of the three Persons, or their

unity, or uttering any profane words about the Trinity, should

be bored through the tongue and fined ,£20 or imprisoned for

six months for the first offence; for the second offence be

branded " B " in the forehead and fined £40, or imprisoned

one year; and for the third offence death. Coiners (counterfeiters)

were to be whipped, pilloried and cropped for

...................................................................................................                                                                                                                                

OUR POLICE.

the first offence; for the second, to be branded in the cheek

and banished. Cursing or profane swearing in the presence

of any magistrate or other public officer, was to be punished

with a fine of 2s. 6d. for the first oath and 5s. for every succeeding

oath. Persons drunk in the presence of magistrates or other

public officers were fined 5s. If these fines were not paid the offender

was put in the stocks for three hours for each offence,

or received not exceeding thirty-nine lashes. Horse-stealing was

THE DUCKING-STOOL.

punished with death, as were burglaries of dwellings, warehouses

or tobacco houses. The penalty for Sabbath breaking was a fine

of two hundred pounds of tobacco and where the offender kept

an ordinary, a fine of two thousand pounds. Forgeries or any

sort of falsification in connection with the inspection of tobacco

were punished with thirty-nine lashes and two hours in the pillory.

In 1663, an Act was passed providing irons for burning malefactors

and for erecting a pillory, stocks, nnd ducking-stools in

...................................................................................................                                                                                                                                

OUR POLICE. 9

each county. The ducking-stool for. scolding women was, however,

abandoned in 1G7G, that section of the Act being repealed;

but the stocks, the pillory, the whipping-post, with its handcuiFs

and the branding-iron, long remained "institutions" of the time.

In fact, the stocks, the pillory and the gibbet did not pass out

of vogue in Maryland until about 1810 when the penitentiary

system was adopted. About 1770 all of the cruel punishments

named above were used. Offenders were publicly exposed in the

THE PILLORY AND WHIPPING-POST.

most frequented thoroughfares; their ears nailed to the pillory

and cut off, the malefactors being whipped afterwards through

the public streets; the tongue bored with a red hot iron or

the nose slit, or the person branded with the initial letter of the

offense for which he suffered. Thus, " S . L.," branded on

either cheek, indicated that the culprit was so marked for being

a li seditious libeller " ; " M " meant manslaughter ; " T " on the

left hand, thief"; " R " on the shoulder, rogue and vagabond

and " P " on the forehead, perjury. The most general form of

...................................................................................................                                                                                                                                

10 OUR POLICE.

whipping was what was called "flogging at the cart's tail " when

the criminal was tied to the back of a cart, slowly driven, and

flogged through the town by the public executioner. Of course,

the spectacle was attended by crowds acting as a noisy escort.

In 1748 an old and gray-headed man who was convicted of blasphemy

at Baltimore County Assizes, had his tongue bored

through and was sentenced to remain in jail until the fine of

.£20 was paid.

In Baltimore was located the last pillory and whipping-post in

Maryland. They were on the spot where the Battle Monument

now stands, forming in fact one of the main posts of

the underpinning of the old court house. Underneath this

building, one above the other, was the pillory and whippingpost,—

a two-storied instrument of justice. It was here, in 1819,

the last man was pilloried in Maryland. The last public

whipping in this State, previous to the recent wife-beating law,

was of a postmaster, convicted in the United States Court at Annapolis

of tampering with the mails. There being no whippingpost

at the time in the town, the culprit was tied up to one of the

columns under the portico of the State House and the punishment

inflicted.

The new town had no police supervision independent of the

county officers of Baltimore County for many years. The powers

of the commissioners appointed in 1729 were enlarged by Acts of

Assembly until they had control of purely local affairs. Thomas

Long, in 1687, was the first Sheriff of Baltimore County. In

1705 Auquilla Baca was Sheriff, and he was succeeded by Francis

Dalahide in the following year. In 1682 John Boring was

Presiding Justice of the County Court, but in 1708 Colonel

James Maxwell assumed the office, and so continued twenty years.

During this time the Sheriff's office was filled successively by

James Presbury, John Dorsey, John Stokes, Edward Hall,

Francis Holland and William Smith. In September, 1745, the

assembly consolidated Jones town and Baltimore town under the

name of the latter. The bridge over Jones Falls was declared

public and was to be kept at the charge of Baltimore county.

Seven commissioners were appointed with enlarged power-; they

...................................................................................................                                                                                                                                  

OUR POLICE. 11

•were Mayor Thomas Sheredine, Doctor George Buchanan, Captain

Robert North, Colonel William Hammond, Captain Darby

Lux and Messrs. Thomas Harrison and William Fell. They

were empowered to enforce the former Act of Assembly relating

to the towns, have them carefully surveyed and the lots

bounded and numbered. Then came the building of a fence

about the town in order to keep swine and geese from the

streets, one of the first precautions against nuisances ever taken

by the town; but these fences speedily disappeared, because in

1750 there was an excessively cold winter and the logs of which

the palisade was composed were burned for fuel. The town grew

gradually, adding to itself one by one the necessities of a settlement.

Near the court house, which has been already referred

to, was erected the jail. This building was two stories high, built

of stone, and was used until 1802. The sanitary condition of

this jail seems to have been sadly neglected within the next few

years. It is recorded that the American Congress, in 1776,

then in session in Philadelphia, upon the approach of the royal

troops towards the Delaware adjourned to Baltimore. At their

first meeting in this city, a resolution was passed declaring "that

the apartments in the jail of the town of Baltimore be repaired

and put in such a condition as not to endanger the health of

those who may be confined in them ; and the prisoners from the

State of North Carolina be removed thence to different rooms in

the court house, or wherever else they can be procured and there

safely locked up and secured."

As Baltimore developed into a flourishing community evil

doers were attracted to it, and if the statements of one of its

citizens over the signature " Philodemus," made in a communication

to the Maryland Journal and The Baltimore Advertiser,

(now the Baltimore American) on September 9, 1773, are to be

relied upon, the town was very much in need of police protection.

This is an extract from the letter: " The late frequent robberies

must certainly alarm every trading inhabitant in this town and

set them on their guard against the nocturnal meetings of

hardened villains who thirst after the well earned property of

the honest and upright dealer." He then goes on to tell of the

...................................................................................................                                                                                                                                  

12 OUR POLICE.

peculiar wickedness of one Monsieur Mercier, a Frenchman,

and afterwards continues : " I must here beg leave to animadvert

on the apparent neglect of our petty officers of the peace, who, if

I mistake not, are obligated by their oath to be watchful and

diligent, to preserve good order in our streets and to disperse

all idle and tumultuous assemblies, at which blasphemy and vice

usually preside. .1 have often observed, with horror, the numerous

conventicles of iniquity held in and about our market house,

chiefly on the Sabbath day, even in the hours of divine service,

by a gang of idle vagrants, who, despising all the duties of

religion, employ the time set apart for prayer in acts of a most

heinous nature, viz. : cursing, swearing, drunkenness, and debauchery.

May we not reasonably conclude that the day spent

in so riotous and unhallowed a manner will be succeeded by

midnight robbery and plunder.'', The way to remedy these

evils in the writer's opinion, was the establishment of a watch

and lighting the streets in the night time.

" I cannot conclude," ho adds, "without expressing my most

sanguine wishes that the inhabitants of the town, heartily uniting

in a common cause, would generously set on foot and Strenuously

exert themselves to promote an ample subscription for erecting

lamps at proper- distances in our streets and constituting a

body of vigorous, trusty watchmen, for the public convenience

and security in the ensuing winter. A scheme of such utility

will, I hope, meet with immediate notice and when executed

must assuredly be attended with the most happy consequences."

It wras the custom in the early days, to sell convicts as servants,

to the highest bidder, in order to reimburse the county for the

expense of convicting them. There seems to have been a glut

in the slave market in 1775, as the sheriff of Baltimore announced

a sale at public auction, "without reserve." This advertisement,

in the Maryland Journal, reads as follows:

BALTIMORE, JUNE 14, 1775.

"ON SATURDAY, THE 24TH INSTANT, WILL BE SOLD BY PUBLIC" VENDUE,

AT THE PRISON OP THIS COUNTY, A NUMBER OF CRIMINALS, for payment

of their Fees. I will give indentures on them for a term not exceeding

five years, according to the sums they are indebted. I am determined to dispose

of their times for whatever sums they will fetch, be they more or less, which

...................................................................................................                                                                                                                                

OUR POLICE. 13

I expect will induce persons to purchase, as they will probably go off slower

than other servants.

" ROBERT CHRISTIE, JUN., SHERIFF.

"N. B.—TJiose who are inclined to purchase before the day of sale may

apply at the sheriff's office."

; These convicts were not particularly trustworthy servants, as

they were more bent upon securing their liberty than serving

their masters. It was not until two years after the appeal was

made for some action on the part of the citizens towards establishing

a watch in Baltimore, that any steps were taken towards

a systematic policing of the town. In 1775, however, a townmeeting

was held with the object of taking measures to establish

a night-watch. Each male inhabitant capable of duty under this

organization, signed an agreement, by,which he bound himself

to conform to the police regulations adopted by the general meeting

of the citizens and sanctioned by the commissioners, and to

attend personally when summoned to serve as a watchman, or

provide a substitute acceptable to' the committee. This committee

had some of the functions of the present Board of Police Commissioners.

The town was divided into districts and in each of

these was stationed a company commanded by a captain of the

watch. The first captains of the watch, or police, of Baltimore,

under this primitive arrangement, were James Calhoun, captain

of the First District; George Woolsey, Second District; Benjamin

Griffith, Third District; Barnct Eichelberger, Fourth District;

George Lindenberger, Fifth District; and William Goodwin,

of the Sixth District. At Fell's Point, Isaac Yanbidder was

captain, with two assistants or lieutenants. Each captain had

under his command a squad of sixteen men, every inhabitant

being enrolled and taking his turn. The streets were patrolled

by these watchmen from 10 P. M. until daybreak, the patrols

calling aloud the time each quarter of an hour. This was a force

amply sufficient to look after the safety of the town had all its

members done their duty. But as there was no legal obligation the

force soon became inefficient. It was not long before the necessities

of the town demanded a regularly salaried guard and in

1784 the legislature authorized the town commissioners to organize

...................................................................................................                                                                                                                                

11 OUR POLICE.

and control a police or regular night-watch. One of the most

congenial duties of these men at about this time was the announcement,

in addition to the naming of the hour, of the surrender

of Lord Cornwallis. One can imagine with what a

sonorous and exultant cry they sang out: "Three—o'clock,—

and Cornwallis is ta—ka—en"; for by those watchmen the good

news was first announced to Baltimore.

OLD WATCHMAN.

...................................................................................................                                                                                                                                

OUR POLICE. 1")

CHAPTER II.

(1784-1853.)

THE GUARDIANS OF THE TOWN ORGANIZED BY LEGISLATIVE

ENACTMENT. ALL MANNER OP TAXES TO SUPPORT THE PEACE

OFFICERS. AT THE CLOSE OF THE REVOLUTION. BALTIMORE

BECOMES A CITY. INCREASING THE NUMBER OF WATCHMEN.

ESTABLISHMENT OF WATCH-HOUSES AND ERECTION OF CELLS.

THE POLICE FORCE IN 1848.

The history of the Baltimore Police as a thoroughly organized

force of men to guard the city dates from the Act of 1784, and

because this organization forms such an important epoch in the

history of " Our Police," a rather full quotation of the Act which

empowered it will be of interest; it is entitled "An Act for the

Establishment and Regulation of a Night AVatch and the erection

of lamps in Baltimore town, in Baltimore County."

The preamble refers to the necessity of providing the night

watch and then tbe Act goes on to empower the commissioners

of the town, or a major part of them, to meet at such times and

places as they should think proper and to provide for everything

necessary for the proper lighting of the town. Subsequently the

Act empowers the commissioners from time to time " to order,

appoint, hire and employ as many watchmen as they shall judge

necessary, and shall then and there direct and order what wages

shall be given them, and if any of the said watchmen die within

the time for which they were appointed, be negligent in

their duty or be guilty of any misbehavior, it shall and may be

lawful for the commissioners aforesaid, or a major part of them,

at any intermediate time of the year, to remove any of the said

watchmen so appointed, and to employ, hire and appoint one or

more persons, fitly qualified, in the room and stead of him or

them so dying, neglecting duty, or misbehaving as aforesaid."

The Act also conferred upon the commissioners all the powers

and jurisdictions of justices of the peace ; and they could appoint

...................................................................................................                                                                                                                                  

16 OUR POLICE.

any number of persons to be constables provided they were of

good character. The said officials were instructed " as soon

as they conveniently can direct and set down in writing, at what

stands it is fit for the said watchman to be placed; how often they

shall go the rounds, and also appoint the rounds each watchman

is to go, and shall from time to time, make such further and

other orders and regulations for the better government of the said

watchmen as the nature of the case may require." The commissioners

were not to be let off with this but were directed to

furnish a copy of all their transactions affecting their subordinates

to the watchmen. One or more of the constables was required

to attend to the court house, or some other convenient place to

be designated by the commissioners, and keep watch from September

10 to March 10, in every year, from eight o'clock in the

evening to six o'clock in the morning; and during the remaining

six months from nine o'clock in the evening to four o'clock in the

morning; "and the constables shall," the text continues, "in their

several turns and courses of watching, use their best endeavors to

prevent fires, murders, burglaries, robberies, and other outrages

and disorders within said time, and to that end shall, and they are

hereby empowered, directed and required to arrest and apprehend

all night-walkers, malefactors and other suspected persons, who

shall be found wandering and misbehaving themselves, and shall

carry the persons so apprehended as soon as they conveniently can

before one or more justices of the peace or a commissioner in said

town to be examined and dealt with according to law; and shall

once or oftener at convenient times of the night, go about the

several stands in said town, and shall take notice whether the

watchmen perform their duties in their several stations, according

to the regulations made for that purpose." In case any watchman

neglected his duty, the constable was required to immediately

notify the commissioners, that the watchman might be "admonished

or discharged." The constables were to observe all regulations

formulated by the town officers, and in case of their misbehavior

or neglect they could be admonished or discharged as

peremptorily as the watchmen. The constables' compensation

for night duty was fixed by the commissioners. If any constable

...................................................................................................                                                                                                                                  

OUR POLICE. 17

neglected his turn to keep watch at the hours appointed by the

act, or did not watch full time, or did not visit the various stands

at least once every night, he was fined twenty shillings.

The watchmen were given the same powers of arrest as the

constables. In case any fire broke out, or in any other great

emergency, they were required to alarm each other and then

arouse the inhabitants in their respective rounds, " which when

done," the act adds, "they shall repair to their respective stands,

the better to discover any other fire that may happen, as well as

to prevent any burglaries, robberies, outrages, or disorders; and

to apprehend any suspected persons, who, in such times of confusion,

may be feloniously carrying off the goods and effects of

others." The watchmen were then formally given all the powers

exercised by the constables.

- Among the early freaks of Baltimore's young men was that of

smashing lamps, and the Legislature when it provided for the

erection of lamps sought to control this destruction by declaring,

that "if any person shall wilfully or maliciously break, throw

down, destroy, or extinguish any lamps that shall be hung up to

light the streets, lanes, or alleys in said town, or shall wilfully

damage the posts, irons, sentry boxes, or other furniture thereof,

every person so offending, and being convicted by the oath or

affirmation (a recognition of the Quakers) of one or more credible

witnesses before any commissioner or justice of the peace of said

town, shall forfeit and pay three pounds for each and every such

offence." If a lamp was broken unintentionally the unfortunate

one could, by giving notice of the damage within twelve hours

to the commmissioners, escape further penalty than paying the

cost of repairs. When any slave was found guilty of smashing

or injuring lamps he was given thirty-nine lashes on his bare

back, unless his owner paid the fine or repaired the damage.

The arrest of these opponents of former street lighting gave the

constables and watch much to do, and then, as now, the post of

policeman was no sinecure. The pay of the men was secured by

the town commissioners levying a tax, "not exceeding one shilling

and six pence, current money, on every hundred pounds worth of

property assessed within the said town." But this tax also

...................................................................................................                                                                                                                                

18 OUR POLICE.

included the necessary expenditures for the erection of street

lamps. This memorable law was, according to the terms, to

continue in force for three years. It was given new life in 1787

and in 1795, by legislative action; and in 1796 declared to be a

perpetual law, subject to such alterations as might be made by

the corporation or the legislature. The powers of the act and

such others as related to the town's guardians were formally

bestowed upon the " Corporation of the City of Baltimore."

This act of 1784 seems to have met every requirement for the

protection of good citizens for a number of years, and so peaceable

and orderly were the inhabitants that but three constables

were needed during business hours and only fourteen watchmen

at night. In 1792 the amount of tax levied proved to be inadequate

to support a necessarily increased force of constables and

watchmen and so the town officials thought a house tax would

supply the deficiency. This was levied, but the citizens were not

slow in showing their distaste for this measure and the tax was

repealed, a general assessment being collected for the payment of

the peace officers. In 1793 an important change was made in the

act of 1784, when the legislature deprived the town commisioners

of their authority in police matters. The justices of the Court

of Oyer and Terminer, which then administered the criminal law

for Baltimore County, were authorized to appoint the constables

and watchmen and assess the county with the expense of their

employment. They were also authorized to levy a dog tax, "not

exceeding seven shillings and sixpence on every dog belonging

to any inhabitant of said town," to part defray the expenses of

the watch. During this administration by the magistrates, assistant

justices were employed to attend the station-houses and

dispose of the peace cases. An extract from the county comptroller's

report, dated December 15,1796, shows the amount paid

to these assistant justices and constables for their attendance in

weekly rotation at the stations and for superintending the nightlywatch.

Some of its items are: "Paid to assistant justices, £182

10s.; allowance to twenty-two constables for their attendance on the

court, taking up vagrants and disorderly persons, and serving

criminal processes, £198 10s. 3d.; wages paid five captains and

...................................................................................................                                                                                                                                

OUR POLICE. 19

forty-four privates for the Baltimore night-watch from October 1,

1796, including fire-wood, candles and house rent for the Fell's

Point watch, .£1,905 Os. 4d." The same report shows that

,£1,597 10s. had been paid "for erecting and lighting three

hundred fire lamps." By this time lamps had been erected in

various parts of the town and thenceforth their number was

steadily increased.

The Revolutionary war ended, leaving Baltimore a prosperous

and rapidly-growing town. Its population had greatly increased,

its officers had established a regular watch, its streets were lighted

and its inhabitants were no longer content to continue as an unincorporated

community; so a town meeting was called in 1784

to consider whether it would not be expedient to apply to the

Legislature to incorporate the town. This meeting did not have

result, but two years later an attempt was made to remove the

State capitol from Annapolis to this city. The attempt was

defeated, however, in the Legislature by a vote of twenty ayes to

thirty-two noes. In December, 1793, the Assembly was induced

to pass a conditional bill of incorporation " to erect Baltimore

Town, in Baltimore County, into a city, and to incorporate the

inhabitants thereof."

But this enactment provided that it should go into effect on

January 1, 1795, " if the same should be confirmed by the General

Assembly at their session in November, 1794." This the

Legislature failed to do, and the desired incorporation again

failed. Persistency, however, won the day, and on December

31, 1796, after a succession of failures, the cherished object was

attained. The new city was divided into eight wards, each containing

nearly an equal number of inhabitants. This division

was to continue, the boundaries being readjusted from time to

time to secure fair representation according to the population,

until the number of inhabitants reached 40,000, when the city

should be divided into fifteen wards. The Council was to consist

of two branches,—the First and Second. The First was to consist

of two members from each ward, and in the Second, each ward

was represented by one. The corporation was given power to

establish night-watches and patrols and to erect lamps in the

...................................................................................................                                                                                                                                

20 OUR POLICE.

lanes, streets and alleys. The act of November, 1784, regulating

the night-watch, was declared to be a perpetual law, subject

only to such alterations, amendments and revisions as might

be enacted by the corporation or the State Legislature.

On January 16, 1797, councilmen to the Second Branch were

chosen by ballot and electors selected to elect a mayor. These

electors met on February 20, following, and chose James Calhoun

first Mayor of Baltimore, and the members of the First

Branch of the Council. The Mayor called the City Councils

together at the court house on February 27, to enact such laws

under the act of incorporation as they thought proper for the

city government.

The first ordinance passed by the councils affecting the police

was approved on April 3, 1797. It provided that three persons

should be appointed commissioners of the watch, and to supervise

the lighting of the city. They were authorized to employ

for one year "as many captains and watchmen as have been

employed in the night watch the year past" for the.same remuneration.

The commissioners were also required to take security

from the captains and watchmen for their good behavior, to prescribe

regulations for their government, and to define their hours

of duty. The assistant justice of the County Court was empowered

to receive the report and superintend the conduct of the

watch. An officer known as the city or high constable, was

created by the ordinance of March 19,1798. It was his duty " to

walk through the streets, lanes and alleys of the city daily, with

mace in hand, taking such rounds, that within a reasonable

time he shall visit all parts of the city and give information to

the mayor or other magistrate, of all nuisances within the city,

and all obstructions and impediments in the streets, lanes, and

alleys, and of all offences committed against the laws and ordinances."

He was also required to report the name3 of the

offenders against any ordinance and the names of the witnesses

who could sustain the prosecutions against them, and regard the

mayor as his chief. The yearly salary of the city constable was

fixed at $350, and he was required to give a bond for the performance

of his duty. The value of such an officer was soon

...................................................................................................                                                                                                                                  

OUR POLICE. 21

proved, but the territory which he had to cover was too extensive

for him to properly discharge his duty and the councils, by an

ordinance of February 26, 1799, authorized the appointment

of a city constable in each ward. This ward constable was thus

a policeman, and the term of city constable was not properly

his although his duties were defined by the ordinance to be the

same as those of the city or high constable.

Notwithstanding Baltimore had secured an organized police

force, and the corporation had the fullest powers to enforce an

observance of the laws, when the nineteenth century began, the

citizens were inclined to be somewhat unruly. Affairs became

so unmanageable, that in 1801 a town meeting was held for the

purpose of devising some plan for preventing the frequent thefts,

robberies, disturbances and fires that had become so common.

The town was the rendezvous of a number of evil characters;

but this was not surprising as the new city had made remarkable

increase in population. A census taken in the year 1800, showed

that Baltimore then had 31,514 inhabitants, an increase of 18,011

in ten years. At this meeting a committee of three persons from

each ward was appointed to plan a reorganization of the nightwatch.

At a subsequent assembly on April 30, this committee

advised that the patrol be increased. The recommendation was

approved, and by the vigilance of the watchmen disorder was

suppressed for a time. On March 9, 1807, a general ordinance

was passed defining the duties of the city commissioners. They

were given large powers. Among other things, with the Mayor

they were authorized to employ as many captains, officers and

watchmen as they might, from time to time, find necessary, but

the expense should not exceed the annual appropriation for the

service. The board was also required to make regulations and

define the hours of duty of the watch ; see that they attended to

their duties with punctuality, receive their reports and cause them

to be returned to the Mayor's office.

It may have been that the commissioners, to whom, with the

Mayor, the control of police matters was entrusted, were hampered

by the proviso that the expense should not exceed the annual

appropriation; but whatever the cause, within only a few

years Baltimore again had cause to complain of its police protection.

...................................................................................................                                                                                                                                

22 OUR POLICE.

In 1810 ward meetings were held and representatives were appointed

to a general meeting. At this a plan was proposed and

adopted for the reorganization of the watch, which was also

adopted by the authorities. A sub-committee was appointed to

which was given general control of the organization. Under this

scheme there were thirty captains, each being responsible for a

territory distinctly defined, and each captain had under him a

squad of eight men, thus making in all a force of two hundred

and seventy police. This system remained in operation for more

than twenty-five years. By an act of the Legislature in 1812,

the Mayor was empowered to appoint, as he found it necessary,

not less than twenty-five nor more than one hundred bailiffs to

aid in preserving the peace. The Mayor was also directed to

prescribe the duties, designate the badges and weapons and provide

for the compensation of these bailiffs so as to best secure

the objects of their appointment.

On March 9, 1826, the Mayor was given control of the police

of the city by an ordinance which provided that there should be

appointed, annually, two captains and two lieutenants of the

watch for the Eastern District; two captains and four lieutenants

of the watch for the Middle District and two captains and

two lieutenants of the watch for the Western District. They

were expected to perform such duties as the Mayor might, from

time to time, direct. The latter was also given power to appoint

as he chose any number of watchmen and to dismiss them at his

pleasure. He was also to prescribe their duties. A " Supplement

" to this ordinance, which was passed on March 9, 1835,

provided for the appointment of twelve lieutenants of the watch,

constituted policemen " to preserve the peace, maintain the

laws and advance the good government of the city." These

lieutenants were required to reside in certain districts by the

Mayor and have conspicuous signs on their houses bearing their

names and office. In addition to their police duties, they were

required to act as city bailiffs about the markets, Their compensation

was fixed at $20 a month for their night work as

lieutenants of the watch and they received an additional sum of

$220 a year for the services mentioned by the ordinance.

At about this time watch houses were built in various parts of

...................................................................................................                                                                                                                                

OUR POLICE. 23

the city. The Middle District was located at Saratoga and

Holliday streets; the Western District in Green street near

Baltimore and in Belvidere street. The last named watch house

had a belfry, and in April, 1835, an appropriation was made for

a similar addition to the Green street watch house; and in this

year Mayor Jesse Hunt took occasion to call the attention of the

councils to the " lamentably defective" police arrangements of

the city. In March, 1836 the compensation of the watchmen

was increased to $1 for each night they served. On May 22,

1838, the councils substantially re-enacted the ordinance of 1835,

providing, however, that if any watchman while in the performance

of his duty should be wounded or maimed he should receive

half-pay during the continuance of his disability, or for a period

not exceeding two months. They were also paid for attendance

at court. This ordinance provided as well for the annual appointment

of three justices of the peace to receive the reports of the

night-watch. One of these justices was required to reside in

each district. The yearly salary of each was $100. In 1843 two

cells were put in the Western watch house while in the Eastern

house there was but one. In the same year the Baltimore Sun

declared that the custom of the watch calling the time notified

thieves of the locality of the patrol and gave the former an

opportunity of safely conducting their operations. This custom

was consequently abandoned. The Southern District was established

under an ordinance dated on February 18,1845. Two captains

and four lieutenants were appointed for it, and the boundaries

of the other districts were rearranged. The Baltimore police,

as constituted in 1848, consisted in the daytime of one high constable,

one regular policeman for each ward, who was also lieutenant

of the night-watch in his district, and the night watchmen.

Besides these there were two extra policemen for each

ward, who were called into service as occasion required. This

system of day police was changed from time to time to keep pace

with the increase in the number of wards in the city, until the

wards numbered twenty. There was, however, no material alteration

in the system until 1857, when a complete reorganization

took place under the authority of an act of the Legislature passed

in 1853.

...................................................................................................                                                                                                                                

24 OUR POLICE.

CHAPTER III.

(1853-1860.)

THE REORGANIZATION OP THE FORCE.—THE DUTIES OF ITS

OFFICERS. FOUR POLICE DISTRICTS AXD THREE HUNDRED

AND FIFTY PATROLMEN.—NO LONGER HIGH CONSTABLE, BUT

MARSHAL.—FIRST POLICE HEADQUARTERS.—THE PAY AND

UNIFORM.—THE POLICE AND THE MAGISTRATES.—NO PUNISHMENT

OF CRIME.—THE REORGANIZATION OF 1860.—MARSHAL

KANE AND HIS ADMINISTRATION.

The next important change was made under the provisions of

this act; the ordinance of January 1, 1857, introduced an entirely

new order of things, and placed Baltimore's Department

of Police on practically the same footing as those of the other

large cities of the country. It declared that after March 1,

1857, the existing watch and police systems should be abolished,

and all ordinances for the establishment and regulation of the

same be repealed. The new force consisted of one marshal, one

deputy marshal, eight captains, eight lieutenants, twenty-four

sergeants, three hundred and fifty police officers, five detective

police officers and eight turnkeys. The men were required to

do duty day and night, and were given all the powers then

vested by law in the city bailiffs, police officers, constables and

watchmen. The city was divided into four police districts, whose

stations were at the watch-houses. The Marshal, with the concurrence

of the Mayor, was given authority to establish the

limits of the stations, divide them into beats, making allowance

for a proper force to retain at the station houses. lie had power

also to alter at will the limits of the districts and beats.

The Legislature of the State took memorable action on March

16, 1853, in passing a bill to " provide for the better security

for life and property in the City of Baltimore." This enactment

empowered the Mayor and the City Councils to increase,

...................................................................................................                                                                                                                                

OUR POLICE. 25

and in every way strengthen the police, whether officers, bailiffs,

night-watchmen, or in any way connected with the organization

of the force. When any of these guardians of the peace were

injured either in person or apparel, while in the discharge of

his duties, the act required that he be fairly indemnified. This

statute also provided that the police force should be armed, that a

commission and badge be furnished each member, and that it

should be no defence for any one who resisted or assaulted an

officer to claim that his commission or badge was not exhibited.

This statute repealed the act of 1812. It was provided, too, that

the Marshal should bo annually appointed and be regarded as the

head of the police. He was given entire control of its officers

and members, subject to the authority of the Mayor. He might

at any time make rules and regulations for the government of

the force not inconsistent with the city's ordinances, and was

required to report to the Mayor every day all that he was required

to notice in discharge of his duty, the members of the

force he had suspended, the men unfit for duty, and to deliver

the reports and muster-rolls of the captains. In any emergency

he had authority to direct the whole police force, or any part of

it, to serve at any place in the city. An office was provided for

this new official in the central part of the city, and he was allowed

a secretary, to be appointed by the Mayor and City Councils; a

bond for §5,000 being required from him for the faithful performance

of his duties.

The secretary to the Marshal was required to record daily all

suspensions of policemen by his chief, and to keep an account of

all moneys received by the Marshal or deputy-marshal from the

captains, or other sources; draw up the Marshal's monthly reports,

and act generally as clerk; and, finally, to enter all complaints

lodged at the office against the police or against any other

parties for breaches of duty or violations of ordinances or State

laws. His duties were substantially those of the secretary to the

present Board of Police Commissioners. The deputy-marshal

was also appointed annually, and to him fell the duty of assisting

the Marshal in the execution of his duties under the latter's

...................................................................................................                                                                                                                                

26 OUR POLICE.

directions. In case of the sickness or absence of the chief his

deputy took his place.

The captains, two for each district, were appointed annually.

The Marshal assigned one captain to duty between six A. M.

and six P. M., and the others to serve the latter half of the day,

or for such other hours of alternate duty as the Marshal might

designate. The captains, during their respective periods of duty,

had general charge of the station-house and other arrangements

of the police district. The assigned captain, or his lieutenant,

was required to be always accessible at the station, and was expected

to keep a muster-roll of the police of the district, and call

it at the hours of relief. This muster-roll for the preceding day

was sent to the Marshal's office, with the captain's report in

writing, of any delinquency on the part of a member of the police,

any excuses made by either men or officers for absence from duty,

the unfitness of any member for his office, or any charge that

might be made. It was part of the captain's duty to suggest in

writing, to the Marshal any alterations in the limits of the district

that might seem necessary, or in the number or limits of the

beats. Books were required to be kept in each station for the

entry of all arrests, disposal of prisoners, nuisances reported,

ordinances enforced, complaints and applications of citizens and

all other police matters. A copy of all this was to be transmitted

with the muster to the Marshal's office.

The lieutenants, also two to each district, assisted their respective

captains in the performance of their duties, and acted in

their place in case of the latter's absence or sickness. Six sergeants

were assigned to each police district, two for each platoon

of police officers, and after roll call or the hours of relief, led

forth their platoons and stationed the patrolmen on their proper

beats. The sergeants also patrolled their district during their

hours of duty. In case of the absence or sickness of a lieutenant,

the Marshal or captain in charge could assign one of the sergeants

to take his place.

The annual appointment of 350 patrolmen, who were distributed

among the four police districts under the direction of

the Marshal, was also provided for. The force of each district

...................................................................................................                                                                                                                                

OUR POLICE. 27

was divided into three platoons, designated as platoons "A,"

" B " and " C . " The district was divided into beats corresponding

in number with the force of one platoon, after the deduction

had been made from it of a proper number of men to remain at

the station-house for sudden emergencies, and a policeman assigned

to each beat. Under this system the force was so distributed

that one-third of the police was on duty at day, and

two-thirds during the night. At the same period the Detective

Department was organized. The Mayor was directed to appoint

five detective police officers who should not wear uniform, to be employed

in the detection of crimes. They were required to serve

under the Marshal's directions. Two turnkeys were appointed

for each district, and the Marshal was authorized, after submitting

their names to the Mayor for approbation, to assign ten

persons as substitutes for police officers in each district, captains

being allowed to put a substitute in the place of a police officer

who might be sick or absent. The substitutes, while on duty,

were furnished with a badge and number, but were not required

to wear a uniform and were paid for the time of actual service.

A room was provided in each station for the use of four superintendents

of lamps, who were appointed by the Mayor, and from

whom the supplies to the lamp-lighters were distributed.

The adoption of a uniform by the officers and patrolmen was

made compulsory, the uniform being bought by the men. The.

summer costume of the sergeants and policemen consisted of a

black cap with number, a dark blue single-breasted coat with

standing collar, and a star three inches in size, worked in white

worsted on the outside of the left breast of the coat, in such a

manner that it could not be obscured by any part of the clothing.

Dark blue trousers were worn. The winter uniform consisted of

a black hat or cap with the number, a dark blue pilot overcoat,

and dark blue trousers, and a glazed black leather belt, with the

word " Police " lettered on it in bold Roman capital letters one

inch in height. The belt, number, and " battoon," were the only

articles provided at the expense of the corporation. The men

were required to always wear their uniforms in public, whether

on duty or not. The "battoon," carried in the belt, was twenty-

...................................................................................................                                                                                                                                

28 OUR POLICE.

two inches long and one and three-quarter inches thick. Revolvers

and other arms were procured to be used for emergencies.

The hours of service were not limited, the men being liable to be

called out for duty at any time. The marshal had power to

suspend any member of the police, and the Mayor could dismiss

absolutely from the force. The salary of the Marshal was fixed

a,t $1,500 a year; deputy marshal, $1,000 ; Marshal's secretary,

$600; captain, $13 a week, lieutenant, $11.50 a week; sergeant,

$10.50 a week; police officers and detective police officers, $10 a

week; and turnkeys, $7 a week. Four justices of the peace were

appointed, one for each police district, whose duty it was to visit

the station three times a day, for the examination and disposal of

cases against prisoners. Under the new system the watch boxes

were abandoned and sold. At the introduction of this new system

Benjamin W. Herring was High Constable, and became Baltimore's

first Marshal. Stephen II. Manly was his deputy. The

captains of the several districts were: Eastern District, T. W.

Sparklin and Edward Morris; Middle District, John T. Brashears

and John Mitchell; Western District, John N. Linaweaver and

"William G. Brown; Southern District, John S. Manly and John

F. Wood. The men were distributed as follows: Eastern District,

seventy-five patrolmen, forty-four of whom were on night duty,

twenty-two day duty and nine held in reserve, Middle District,

125 patrolmen, seventy-six on night duty, thirty-eight day duty

and eleven in reserve; Western District, seventy-five patrolmen,

forty-six on night duty, twenty-three day duty and six in

reserve; and in the Southern District, seventy-five patrolmen,

forty-four doing night duty, twenty-two day duty and nine in

reserve; thus making 210 men patroling night beats, and onehalf

that number on day ones. In order to give more efficiency

to the night service, the beats in the suburbs of the city were

enlarged with the purpose of concentrating more readily an

effective force whenever a sudden call might be made for it.

The same plan was adopted with the men detailed for service

during the day. Police headquarters were located in the building

then occupied by the Water Commission, in North street,

near Fayette, where Marshal Herring had two rooms.

...................................................................................................                                                                                                                                

OUR POLICE. 29

On March 1, 1857, Marshal Herring issued the following order

to the captains of police :

" The system will commence this morning with the designated force of ) our

district in the following order: One-third for day and two-thirds for night

service. The day men to go on duty at 6 A. M. and remain on until 8 P. 11.,

at which time the night men will relieve the day men, and remain on until

relieved by the day men, at 6 o'clock A. M. It is understood that the men are

in no case to leave their beats unless compelled to do so in the discharge of

their duty. In going to their meals only a portion will leave at a time, the

balance remaining until their return, which must not exceed one hour. Two

Sergeants for day and four for night duty in each district will patrol their

districts and see that their men are at their posts. The captains, lieutenants

and turnkeys will relieve at six o'clock, morning and evening. The reserve

force will be taken from the divisions as provided for in the card previously

circulated. In case of absence from roll-call, a substitute will immediately

take the place of the absentee, morning or night. The above regulations must

be strictly complied with until further orders."

Marshal Herring, in his statement to the Mayor for the year

1857, reported 8,949 arrests during the year, twenty-five of the

prisoners being charged with the offence of shooting at police

officers, principally committed at the November elections. In

1858 there were 10,877 arrests.

While the new organization was unqualifiedly more efficient

than former ones, in the course of a few years it lost the power

to preserve the public peace. Among its members were many

adherents of the American or "Know-nothing party." When

this political ilk first attracted attention and the rowdy clubs

made themselves conspicuous by their violence, the police made

every effort to maintain order; but the force was gradually filled

with " Know-nothing" recruits, who, instead of maintaining the

peace, became willing tools of violence and riot. Thus, in many

instances, the men sworn to enforce an observation of the law

became the chief instruments in subverting it. For several years

the city was given up to a mob. At every election, riot swept

many quarters of the city. Because of these facts a committee

of the Reform party in 1859 drafted a number of bills, known as

the "reform bills," and among these was the police bill. In

order to remove the force from the control of the municipal

officials the bill provided for the organization of a Board of Police

...................................................................................................                                                                                                                                

30 OUR POLICE.

Commissioners. The Legislature made this measure an act on

February 2, 1860. Its first section provided, in nearly its own

terms, that while the City Council of Baltimore might pass ordinances

for preserving order, securing property and persons from

violence, danger, or destruction, and for promoting the great

interests and insuring the good government of the city, it could

pass no ordinance which in any manner should conflict with the

powers of the Board of Police; nor should the city or any officer

or agent of the corporation, or of the Mayor, in any manner obstruct,

hinder, or interfere with the Board of Police, or any

officer under them. The Mayor's powers regarding the police,

which had been conferred by former statutes, were repealed.

Provisions were made for the establishment of a board of police,

consisting of four commissioners and the Mayor. The commission's

members were to be citizens of the United States, as well

as residents of the city for twelve months next preceding their

appointment. Their terms of office were four years. The commissioners

promised, under oath, "that in any and every appointment

or removal to be by them made to or from the police

created and to be organized by them under this article they will,

in no case and under no pretext, appoint or remove any policeman

or officer of police or other person under them, for or on

account of the political opinion of such policemen, officer, or

other person, or for any other cause or reason than the fitness or

unfitness of such person."

One of the commissioners was designated from time to time to

act as treasurer. A majority constituted a quorum for the transaction

of business, and the failure or refusal of the Mayor to act

did not impair the right of the commissioners to organize and

proceed with their duties. In case of a vacancy in the board

during the Legislature's recess, it could be filled by the remaining

commissioners until the meeting of the General Assembly. The

commissioners could hold no other public office. The first commissioners

designated in the act were Charles Howard, William

H. Gatchell, Charles D. Hinks, and John W. Davis, two of

whom were to serve for two years, and two for four years, their

terms of duration to be decided by drawing lots. The duties of

...................................................................................................                                                                                                                                

CHARLES HOWARD.

...................................................................................................                                                                                                                                

...................................................................................................                                                                                                                                

OUR POLICE. 88

the Board were declared to be " at all times, day and night, within

the boundaries of the city of Baltimore, as well on water as on

land, to preserve the public peace, prevent crime and arrest

offenders, protect the rights of jiersons and property, guard the

public health, preserve order at every public election, and at all

public meetings and places and on all public occasions, prevent

and remove nuisances in all streets, highways, waters, and other

places; provide a proper police force at every fire for the protection

of firemen and property; protect strangers, emigrants, and

travelers at steamboat and ship landings and railway stations;

see that all laws relating to elections and to the observance of

Sunday, and regarding pawnbrokers, gambling, intemperance,

lotteries and lottery policies, vagrants, disorderly persons, slaves

and free negroes, and the public health, are enforced, and also

enforce all laws and all ordinances of the Mayor and City Council

of Baltimore not inconsistent with the provisions of this article or

any other law of the State, which may be enforceable by a police

force."

In case the board should have reason to believe that any person

within the city intended to break the peace beyond the city

limits, upon the Chesapeake Bay, or any river, creek, or other

place on land or water within the State, it was made their duty

to have such persons followed, and to take the most effective

measures for the suppression and prevention of the outrage, and

to arrest the offenders. The board was required to appoint,

equip, and arm a permanent police force, the number at the first

organization, exclusive of officers, being fixed at three hundred

and fifty, with power to reduce the number or increase it to not

more than four hundred and fifty, as experience might warrant.

For extraordinary emergencies the board might raise such additional

force as its judgment demanded. No person could be

appointed or employed as a policeman or officer of police who had

been convicted of, or against whom any indictment was pending

for an offence the punishment of which was confinement in the

penitentiary. Among the necessary qualifications for appointment

was citizenship of the United States, ability to read and

write, good character, and physical strength and courage. The

...................................................................................................                                                                                                                                  

84 OUR POLICE.

law made this provision also: " That no Black Republican or

endorser or approver of the Helper Book shall be appointed to

any office under said Board."

The policemen were appointed for five years, and could be removed

only for just cause after a hearing before the board.

Policemen whose term of service should expire, and also had

faithfully performed their duty, were to be preferred by the board

in making their new appointments. The number of men and the

disposition of the new force were not greatly changed. The

Marshal and deputy-marshal were continued, and the appointment

of eight captains, eight lieutenants, twenty-four sergeants, and

eight turnkeys was provided for, the officers being subject to

removal by the board. The pay of the ordinary policemen was

fixed at $10 a week, payable semi-monthly. The board was empowered

to appoint five detective policemen, paid the same as

patrolmen. The Marshal's salary was $1,500 per annum; the

deputy-marshals, $1,000; captains, $13 a week; lieutenants,

$11.50; and sergeants, $10.50, payable semi-weekly. Whenever

a vacancy occurred in any grade of officers, except that of

marshal and deputy-marshal, the law required that it should be

filled from the next lower grade. The board was authorized to

make rules and regulations for the appointment, uniforming

and disciplining and government of the police, for the relief

and compensation of members injured in the discharge of their

duties, and the support of families of men and officers killed in its

performance. Such an allowance, however, could not exceed

twelve months' pay. No member of the force was allowed to

receive any gratuity without the consent of the board, and any

money he was permitted to receive was to be paid to the commissioners,

which, " together with the proceeds of fines, forfeitures,

penalties and unclaimed property which came into the

possession of the board or be recovered by them under the provisions

of this article, or any other law," formed a fund which

the board could apply towards allowances to policemen and

their families, and for extra pay to any member of the force who

might be awarded it for gallantry and good conduct on extraordinary

occasions. This provision was the foundation of the

...................................................................................................                                                                                                                                

WILLIAM H. GATCIIELL.

...................................................................................................                                                                                                                                

...................................................................................................                                                                                                                                

OUR POLICE. 87

present Police Pension Fund, which has become so flourishing. The

board was authorized to use a common seal, and the fire-alarm

and police telegraph, and all station-houses, watch-boxes, arms,

accoutrements, and other accommodations, which had been provided

by the Mayor and Council for the use and service of the

police. In case of the refusal of the Mayor or Council or any

officers or agents to allow such use, the board could apply to the

Superior Court of Baltimore, in the name of the State, for a

mandamus to compel a compliance. The law also made it the

duty of the sheriff, whenever called upon by the board, to act

under its control for the preservation of the peace. It could

order him to summon the posse comitatus, and hold and employ

the posse under its direction. It could also summon the military

force of the city to aid in preventing threatened disorder, or in

suppressing insurrection or disorder on election days and other

times, the military then being subject to the directions given

them by the board. Whenever the exigency warranted it the

board could assume command of all the conservators of the peace

in the city, sheriff, constables, police, and others, and the latter

were required to act under the orders of the board. In case of

the refusal of any of these to obey any lawful command of the

board they were liable to the following penalties : the sheriff to a

penalty of $5,000, and other peace officers to a penalty of $500,

and any private citizen to a penalty of $150. Any officer of tbe

military force of the city failing to obey the board was liable to a

penalty of $500, and any non-commissioned officer or private to

a penalty of $150.

Upon the organization of the Board of Police it was required

to inform the Marshal or deputy-marshal of police that it required

his attendance and obedience to its orders, under penalty, and

the whole existing force should then pass under the exclusive

management and control of the board, the latter having power of

removal or suspension, and to fill vacancies, until it should

declare the organization complete. Upon this public declaration

all ordinances of the City Council were annulled and declared void

so far as they conflicted with the new law, or assumed or conferred

upon the Mayor or any other person any power to employ

...................................................................................................                                                                                                                                

38 OUR POLICE.

or control any police force organized under such ordinances.

The board was required to annually estimate the sum of money

necessary for each current fiscal year enabling it to discharge its

duties, and certify the same to the Mayor and City Council, who

were expected to assess and levy the amount upon all assessable

property of Baltimore, and collect the same as other city taxes.

A penalty of $1,000 was imposed upon "any officer or servant

of the Mayor and City Council," who should forcibly resist or

obstruct the enforcement of the provisions of the act providing a

permanent police for the city. Justices of the peace were to be

designated to sit at the respective stations for hearing cases.

The board was required to keep a full journal of its proceedings,

which should be open to the inspection of the General Assembly,

or any committee appointed by it for that purpose. The board

was also ordered to report to the Assembly at each session of

the latter.

The last section of this important law declares that nothing in

it should " b6 taken to destroy or diminish the liability or responsibility

of the Mayor and City Council of Baltimore for any

failure to discharge the duties or obligations of the corporation,"

the board of police being constituted the authorities for all such

purposes to the same effect as if created and appointed by the

Mayor and Council; "Provided, however," it is again cautiously

stated, "that nothing m this section shall be construed to give to

the said Mayor and City Council, or any officer of said corporation,

any control over said board or any officer or policeman appointed

thereby." This act took effect on the day of its passage.

The act of February 14,1860, conferred upon the Board of

Police the additional powers of general supervision of elections.

It was required to divide the wards of the city into election precincts,

and exercised a large control over the voting. The personnel

of the first board was excellent. Mr Howard, the

president, was a genial gentleman of independent means, possessing

the confidence of the entire community. He was a

Democrat in politics. Mr. Gatchell was also a Democrat, but

neither he nor Mr. Howard figured prominently in party affairs

Mr. Hinks was an active Republican, and was afterwards Mayor

...................................................................................................                                                                                                                                

CHARLES D. IIINKS.

                                                                                                                     

...................................................................................................                                                                                                                                

OUR POLICE. 41

of the city. All of these gentlemen are now dead. Of the original

board there are living Mr. John W. Davis and Judge

George W. Brown, then Mayor and ex-officio member of the

Board of Police.

This police bill excited the most violent opposition from the

city authorities, who, with others, contended that the act was

unconstitutional. On the passage of the bill the Mayor dispatched

a message to the Council asking leave to test its legality,

saying, in his opinion, that the " Reform bills were without the

authority of law, and cannot be recognized by the courts." On

February 6, the Commissioners of the Police Board appeared in

the clerk's office at the Superior Court and subscribed to the required

oath of office. Three days later a formal demand was

made through their counsel, Reverdy Johnson, S. Teackle

Wallis, J. Mason Campbell and William H. Norris, upon the

Mayor and City Council for the delivery, under the law, of

the station-houses, police equipments, etc. Mayor Swann, on

the 10th, formally notified the board of his refusal to comply

with the demand. The commissioners then made application to

Judge Martin, of the Superior Court, for a mandamus. The

decision of the court was not made until March 13, when it decided

that the act constituting the board was constitutional. The

Mayor and City Council appealed from this decision, and the

decision was affirmed by the Court of Appeals on April 17. The

great body of the people of Baltimore were favorable to the new

police law, and this final decision declaring its legality gave the

greatest satisfaction. The commissioners immediately organized

a new police force, and entered upon their duties on May 1,

1860. A new uniform was adopted for the policemen, and the

force was known as the Metropolitan Police. Colonel George

P. Kane was appointed Marshal, and Thomas Gifford, deputymarshal.

Marshal Kane, who accepted the position at a great

personal sacrifice, and who was perhaps the best man in the city

for the task confided to him, raised the force to the highest point

of efficiency.

The new force, organized by him, uniformed and thoroughly

drilled, was the most efficient the city had ever known. Old

...................................................................................................                                                                                                                                

42 OUR, POLICE.

abuses were done away with, and the citizens began to look upon

the recent epoch of riot and violence as a terrible nightmare, and

this feeling of security might have losg continued but for the

troubles incident to the beginning of the civil war.

Mr. Herring, who preceded Colonel Kane as Marshal, was the

connecting link between the old police organization, when there

Was constabulary and a high constable, and the efficient force

which Colonel Kane developed. Mr. Herring had served four

years as high constable under Mayors Jerome and Hinks. Basil

James was deputy high constable. During Mayor Smith Holland's

administration Mr. Herring did not hold office, but upon

Mayor Swann's election and the re-organization of the police, he

was made Marshal. His deputy was Stephen Manly. Mr.

Herring served until 1861, when the control of the police was

removed from the municipal authorities, and the new order of

things went into effect. Marshal Herring was born in New

Castle, Delaware, on April 1, 1810. He came to Baltimore

while a young man and engaged in the grocery business, which

he followed until elected to the position of High Constable.

In 1861, when the city police force was disbanded, he went to

Pennsylvania, and subsequently settled in Philadelphia. In that

city he was engaged in business for more than twenty years, and

in 1882, having acquired a competency, he returned to Baltimore,

to pass his declining years in the city where his youth was spent.

Notwithstanding his more than seventy-seven years, Mr. Herring

is an active and robust man, and defends the old police force, of

which he was chief. He recently said to the writer:

" The criticisms on the police of those days are unjust. There

was not a better body of men in the country. We had the old

volunteer fire department to deal with, and the firemen gave us a

great deal of trouble. The real fault of the lawlessness at that

time rested not with the police, but with the courts and magistrates.

The magistrates were elected by the wards at that time.

Many of the roughest element in society belonged to the fire

companies, and the men seeking magisterial office depended upon

that class for election. When the police arrested one of these

men for any crime he would be released on straw-bail, and within

...................................................................................................                                                                                                                                  

OUR POLICE. 43

twenty-four hours we would perhaps have the same man to again

lock up. The officers were not upheld in the discharge of their

duties. We often arrested forty or fifty persons in one night,

every one of whom were released the next morning by the

magistrates. They would take the sureties from anybody that

offered them. The citizens did not understand the true facts of

the matter and blamed the police. They saw the lawlessness

and riot, and thought the police ought to correct them. The

officers got discouraged. The roughs defied the police, knowing

how secure they were. To show their recklessness look

at the case of the shooting of policemen Rigdon and Benton.

Cropps, Currie and Gamble would never have murdered the

officers or been hanged if they had been properly dealt with in the

first instance. They had been arrested for crimes time and time

again, but nothing was done with them. They were allowed to

do as they pleased, until they thought any crime, even the murder

of policemen, could be committed with immunity to themselves.

Then officer Jordan was shot in Old Town. There was

a riot in Jackson Hall, and hearing of it, I took some officers

and went over there. As we approached the hall the crowd

within began firing from the windows, and officer Jordan fell,

shot dead. Rioting was very common. I was many times out

on Baltimore street with forty or fifty men all night, just to keep

the firemen from fighting.

" I , myself," continued Mr. Herring, "arrested one of the

worst characters in Baltimore, 'Bud' Coulston, for firing two

shots in the day time into the public school at Fayette and Holliday

streets. I took the prisoner before a magistrate who

immediately released him on ' straw' bail. There were hundreds

of such cases. Captain Brown's men, of the Western District,

arrested one man, in a little more than a year, one hundred and

forty-seven times. He was a notorious rough, one of the worst

men in the city, but he was never brought before the courts for

trial. The Deputy State Attorney frequently came to my office

and committed five or six prisoners to jail, and find the next

morning that all had been released by their friends, the magistrates,

on the fiction that they had given security or 'bail.'

 

...................................................................................................                                                                                                                                

44 OUR POLICE.

Much has heen said about the police and election days. Why,

the officers made arrests at the polls, took their prisoners to jail,

and within two hours would find them hack about the polling

places. There were numbers of these cases. The people did

not understand it all, and some clamored for a change. If the

courts and magistrates had done their duty, the control of the

police should never have been taken out of the hands of the

Mayor. We had a rough time, but it was not the fault of the

police, and had the force been assisted by the execution of the

laws, we would not have had so much trouble. There were no

gymnasiums in those days; the men had enough gymnastic exercise

without. They were compelled to fight almost every prisoner

and drag him to the station. Frequently the officers literally

had their coats torn off their backs. If an arrest were made in

a crowd the prisoner's friends would interfere, and prevent the

officer from properly discharging his duty. During the latter

part of my administration the volunteer firemen were disbanded

and the paid fire department established. An improvement in

the order of the city was at once manifest; but about the time we

were beginning to straighten things out the force was disbanded

and the new Police Board went into operation. The force was

disbanded, but many of the men, bad as some would have you

believe they were, were re-appointed, and remain to this day

good and efficient officers of police. The men did not at the time

like the change."

...................................................................................................                                                                                                                                

OUR POLICE. 45

CHAPTER IV.

CIVIL WAR AND THE NEW FORCE.

THE ENTRANCE OP THE NORTHERN TROOPS.—MARSHAL KANE'S

PRECAUTIONS.—PROTECTING THE MILITARY.—THE MARCH

THROUGH THE STREETS.—"KEEP BACK, MEN, OR I'LL SHOOT."

—THE COMMISSIONERS AND MARSHAL ARRESTED.—UNDER

MILITARY RULE.—THE RIVAL POLICE BOARDS.—GOOD ORDER

AGAIN.—THE REORGANIZATION OF 1867.—THE FIRST BOARD.

Marshal Kane was fitly chosen for his position. It was the

recollection of his administration which made the reorganization

of the force after the stirring times of the civil war, one which

demanded the best executive ability in the city, and made the

present admirable system possible. But Mr. Kane, while he was

anxious to serve his fellow citizens with the very best of his

powers, did not propose to sacrifice himself absolutely, and so in

November, 1860, after his charge had been fostered into a sturdy

life, tendered his resignation as Marshal, but the citizens made so

general a protest against its acceptance that he was induced to

withdraw it. In the latter part of November, Mayor George

William Brown became, ex officio, a member of the Board of

Police; William F. McKewen was clerk of the Board. The

force as thus constituted continued to protect the city until the

military authorities took possession of it in 1861. In the memorable

troubles of the 19th of April in that year the police earned for

themselves, by their coolness and courage, a national reputation,

Marshal Kane particularly distinguishing himself by his brave

efforts to protect the passing soldiers from harm. The first

Northern troops on their way to Washington, a force of about

six hundred Pennsylvanians, passed through the city on the 18th

of April. The route of march from the depot, at the intersection

of Cathedral and Howard street, to Mount Clare depot, was lined

with an excited crowd which hooted the soldiery, but was kept

from violence by the thoroughness of the police arrangements.

...................................................................................................                                                                                                                                  

46 OUR POLITE.

Simultaneously with the passage of the first Northern troops

came the news that Virginia had seceded, and the danger of passing

soldiers through the city was so apparent that a dispatch was sent

by the Northern Central Railroad Company to Governor Curtin,

of Pennsylvania warning him of the peril of repeating the

attempt. Governor Hicks and Mayor Brown issued a proclamation

warning the people to refrain from violence. On April 19,

information was received that a large body of Federal troops, on

their way to Washington, would soon arrive at the depot of the

Philadelphia railroad. No intimation of this had been previously

received by the police, although the Marshal repeatedly

telegraphed to Philadelphia for information. Marshal Kane

hastily called out a force to protect the soldiery. At eleven

o'clock a train of thirty-five cars, containing about two thousand

troops of the Sixth regiment of Massachusetts, the First

and Fourth of Pennsylvania, and the Washington Brigade of

Philadelphia, arrived at the depot. Six rounds of ball cartridge

per man had been furnished the Massachusetts men in apprehension

of trouble. Marshal Kane, accompanied by Mayor

Brown, had gone to the Camden station of the Baltimore and

Ohio Railroad, where a train was preparing to take the men to

Washington. As the change of cars occurred at this point, it

was here that an attack was feared, and a strong police force

was massed about the station. The line of march, about a mile

from the Philadelphia depot to the Camden station, was bordered

with citizens more or less excited. The first car, containing

Massachusetts men, and drawn by horses, then the

means of transit of all trains through Baltimore, started from the

depot at half past eleven o'clock, and was shortly followed by

eight other cars. The constantly increasing crowd groaned,

yelled and hooted, but still offered no violence. The appearance

of the crowd was, however, so alarming that the soldiers threw

themselves on the floors of the cars, so that none of them were

visible from the outside. The nine cars reached the Camden

station in safety, and, although there was a larger and more

angry crowd assembed there, no violence was offered, and the

troops were safely transferred to the Washington train. The

...................................................................................................                                                                                                                                  

HON. GEORGE WILLIAM BROWN.

...................................................................................................                                                                                                                                

^ ...................................................................................................                                                                                                                                

OUR POLICE. 49

tenth car had gone but a little distance from the depot, when it

was delayed in its passage—according to one account, was thrown

off' the track by obstructions, and had to be replaced with the

help of a passing team. A stone was thrown at it by some one

in the crowd, and in an instant a shower of paving-stones and

other missiles descended on the car, the windows were broken, and

some of the soldiers were struck. Near Gay street a number of

laborers were at work repairing Pratt street, and had taken up

the cobble-stones. A cart full of sand was dumped upon the

track, and the loose paving-stones piled on top, and, as a more

effectual means of obstruction, a number of large anchors, lying

near the head of Gay street dock, were placed across the track.

In several places the rails were torn up. The next lot of cars,

being stopped by the obstructions, were hauled back to the station.

Their passage had now become impossible. Thus, about

four companies of troops, or about 220 men, were blocked. A

report spread through the crowd that they had abandoned the

attempt to pass through the city and taken an eastward bound

train. Presently a report was circulated that, instead of returning,

the troops were preparing to march through the city, and in

an instant a rush was made for the depots. There, the soldiers

were found preparing to march. The crowd assembled rapidly,

its anger increasing with the delay. Several attempts were

made by the mob to break into the cars, but these were

checked by the strong body of police. Presently six car-loads

of soldiers left the train, and despite the threats of the crowd,

succeeded, with the help of the police, in forming a double file.

The troops massed on President street, while the crowd pressed

upon them, cheering for Jefferson Davis and the Confederacy, and

groaning for Lincoln and the North. The order was given to .

march, but the crowd blocked the way. The troops then wheeled

and tried to move in the opposite direction, but the crowd again

held them in check. Finally, they were formed into columns

of fours, with an escort of police in the front and the rear, and

the crowd reluctantly gave way to the police. Then the march

was begun towards the Camden street station. Throughout that

terrible day, nothing was more remarkable than the admirable

...................................................................................................                                                                                                                                  

50 OUR POLICE.

behavior, discipline and courage of the police, and the respect

with which the mob regarded them. Amid all the excitement

they were never directly attacked, not even when they drove the

furious mob back inch by inch, or tore men by force out of its

hands. As the soldiers advanced along President street the turbulence

of the crowd increased. One of the hands of rioters bore

a Confederate flag, which was saluted with deafening cheers, and

carried a considerable distance. A man rushed towards the

flag, and pulling down the staff nearly tore away the banner,

when he was seized by the throat and would have been killed,

had not the police rescued him. Stones were thrown in great

numbers, and at Fawn street two of the soldiers were knocked

down and seriously injured. One of them was seized and

roughly handled until the police forced their way to him and

carried him off. The troops then quickened their pace to a run,

bending their heads to avoid the ftying stones. The police did

their utmost, but it was useless to arrest men when not an officer

could be spared to put them in jail. The presence of the police,

however, was of great service, and they rescued two more soldiers

from the crowd. The rioters were armed only with such stones

and missiles as could be picked up, and a few pistols. They made

no attempt to use the muskets taken from the fallen soldiers, but

handed them over to the police.

During this time, Marshal Kane, the Police Commissioners

and Mayor Brown, with a large body of police, were at the

Camden street station. A large crowd had assembled there,

but was restrained by the police from committing any serious

breach of the peace. Shortly after the arrival of the nine

car-loads of troops who had passed safely to the Camden station,

the alarm was given that the mob was about to tear up

the rails in advance of the train on the Washington road.

Marshal Kane ordered some of his men to go out as far as

necessary, and protect the track. About this time, also, the

first intelligence reached the Mayor and police officials at the

Camden station, that troops had been left behind, and that

the mob was tearing up the tracks on Pratt street, so as to

obstruct the progress of the cars. Police Commissioner Davis

...................................................................................................                                                                                                                                

HON. JOHN W. DAVIS.

...................................................................................................                                                                                                                                

...................................................................................................                                                                                                                                

OUR POLICE. 58

immediately summoned Marshal Kane to the point of danger-,

and Mayor Brown proceeded alone. Sergeant McComas and

four policemen had been stationed at the foot of Gay street,

where the anchors had been placed, but they were prevented from

removing the obstructions by the rioters. Mayor Brown, upon

appearing, ordered their removal, and his authority was not resisted.

Near the Pratt street bridge Mayor Brown encountered

the four companies of Massachusetts troops marching in doublequick

time. The soldiers were firing wildly, sometimes backward,

over their shoulders. The mob was pursuing, throwing stones

and firing an occasional pistol shot. The uproar was furious,

but as Mayor Brown approached the head of the column, some

persons in the crowd called out:

" Here comes the Mayor !"

Joining the officer in command, he announced who he was, and

marched with him. Mayor Brown objected to the double-quick,

and it was immediately stopped. The Mayor's presence had

some effect for a short time, but very soon the attack was renewed

with greater vigor. As the mob grew bolder, the rioters

rushed at the soldiers and attempted to snatch their muskets.

With one of these weapons a soldier was killed. Men fell on

both sides, the soldiers firing at will. The troops could not discriminate

between the rioters and the bystanders, and the latter

seemed to suffer most from the firing, for the mob was pursuing

the troops. The latter could not face about with ease, and so

shot towards their flank. At South street several citizens who

had been standing in a group, fell, wounded or killed. Near

Light street a soldier was fatally wounded, and a boy on a

vessel lying in the dock was killed. About the same place,

some soldiers, at the head of the column, fired into a group on

the sidewalk, the shots taking effect. At this point, between

Light and Charles streets, Marshal Kane, with about fifty policemen,

was seen running from Camden street station. These

police formed at the rear of the troops and in front of the

mob, and kept it back with drawn revolvers. Marshal Kane

called out:

"Keep back, men, or I'll shoot!"

...................................................................................................                                                                                                                                

54 OUR POLICE.

This gallant movement was successful, and the mob recoiled.

One of the ringleaders tried to pass the line, but the Marshal

seized him, and declared he would shoot him if he persisted.

Marshal Kane and his men nearly ended the fight, and the

column passed on under the protection of the police, without

serious molestation, to Camden station, where the detachment

that had first passed through in the Washington cars was waiting

the arrival of the other troops to start. At the station there

was more rioting and confusion, but nothing serious occurred.

Police Commissioner Davis assisted in protecting the soldiery

while they were entering the cars. Some muskets were pointed

out of the windows by the troops, but Commissioner Davis

earnestly objected to this as likely to bring on a renewal of the

fight, and consequently the blinds were closed.

At about a quarter of one o'clock the train of thirteen cars,

filled with troops, moved out of the station to Washington, followed

by the hisses and groans of the multitude. At the outskirts

of the city, shots were fired from the windows of the cars,

and Robert W. Davis was killed. During the day four of the

Massachusetts regiment were killed and thirty-six wounded.

Twelve citizens were killed.

When the Massachusetts troops had departed, the band of the

regiment and some unarmed Pennsylvania troops, who had not

yet left the President street station, were in danger. A mob

assembled and there was insufficient police protection. Stones

were thrown, and some of the Pennsylvanians were hurt; a numbor

were panic-stricken and scattered through the city. Marshal

Kane again appeared with an adequate force, and quiet was

restored. Arrangements were subsequently made with the railroad

by which the remaining troops were returned towards Philadelphia.

During the afternoon and night a number of straggling

soldiers sought the aid of the police, and were cared for at the

stations.

Notwithstanding the brilliant achievements of the new police

organization, the last vestige of the civil authority directing it

was doomed soon to be swept away. The military took possession

of the city, and on the morning of June 27, Marshal Kane

...................................................................................................                                                                                                                                  

SAMUEL IIINDES.

...................................................................................................                                                                                                                                  

5C*

...................................................................................................                                                                                                                                  

OUR POLICE. 57

was arrested at his home and taken to Fort McHenry. Mr.

Kane had given pronounced expression to his views in regard to

the expediency of massing troops at Washington, and had thus

made himself liable to the summary action by the military in

the city. On the same day General Banks suspended the

Board of Police, and ordered John R. Kenly to assume command

of the police in the city. On July 10, General Banks

appointed George 11. Dodge to be Marshal of Police in place of

Colonel Kenly. He entered upon his duties the same day,

with James McPhail as deputy-marshal. They occupied the

property of the city provided for the regular police, and the

troops which had been quartered in the heart of the town were

withdrawn and sent back to the camps. The Board of Police

(Commissioners was arrested on the morning of July 1st, by men

of Col. Morehead's Philadelphia regiment. The troops proceeded

first to the house of John W. Davis, who had so distinguished

himself in protecting the Northern soldiers on April 19,

arrested him, and sent him to the fort, under guard. They next

arrested Charles D. Hinks, Charles Howard, the President of

the Board, and William H. Gatchell. All these gentlemen were

conveyed to the fort, and then sent to Fort Warren, Boston Harbor,

where they remained for more than a year. The Clerk of the Board,

William McKewen, who has since figured prominently in local politics,

and is now clerk of the city court, was also arrested, but afterwards

discharged by Marshal Kenly, no charge having been

made against him. General Banks then appointed a police

board, composed of Columbus O'Donnell, Archibald Sterling,

Jr., Thomas Kelso, John R. Kelso, John W. Randolph, Peter

Sauerwein, John B. Seidenstricker, Joseph Roberts and Michael

Warner. Between Thursday night and Friday morning, a number

of military arrests were made, and among the prisoners was

Mayor George William Brown. It was intended to send him, with

others, to the Dry Tortugas, but, as it fortunately happened, there

were no vessels in the port suitable for the service. Clerk William

McKewen, was re-arrested on October 15, and thus the last

vestige of the authority of the Baltimore Police Board was

temporarily disposed of.

...................................................................................................                                                                                                                                

58 OUR POLICE.

The bill appropriating one hundred thousand dollars for the

payment of the police organization of Baltimore, " employed

by the United States," was introduced into Congress on July

21, and "railroaded" through. Representative Henry May

characterized the measure as " a bill to provide for the wages

of oppression." All discussion was cut off by moving the

"previous question." In the Senate the act was adopted with

equal precipitancy, notwithstanding the protests of both the

Maryland Senators. This Congressional appropriation not

being sufficient for the purpose, the City Council, at its

session of 1862-63, made an appropriation of twenty-two

thousand dollars to supply the deficiency. In 1862 the military

signified its willingness to turn over the police department

to the civil authorities of the State, as the Legislature,

which had the power to appoint a Board of Police Commissioners,

was at the time in full sympathy with the Federal Government.

The Legislature, therefore, on February 18, 1862,

passed a bill repealing the former Police Bill of 1860, but substantially

re-enacting its provisions, with the exception of the

number of Commissioners, which was fixed at two, who, together

with the Mayor of the city, John Lee Chapman, formed

the Police Board. The oath of fealty to the Government of

the United States was required from the Commissioners and

all the officers of police appointed by them. Messrs. Samuel

Hindes and Nicholas L. Wood were appointed to the office. This

Board qualified on March 6, 1862, and organized and entered

on its duties on March 10. On the 29th, the Government force

of police was turned over to the Police Board, and on April 1,

it was paid and disbanded. A large majority of the force selected

by the new Board was the same as appointed by the Provost-

Marshal. The new organization began its service on April

3, 1862.

W. A. Van Nostrand was the Board's appointment to the

Marshalship. He filled the office during that most troublous

period in the city's history—from 1862 to March, 1864. His

deputy was William H. Lyons. Besides being Marshal of Baltimore,

Mr. Van Nostrand filled the position of United States

...................................................................................................                                                                                                                                  

NICHOLAS L. WOOD.

...................................................................................................                                                                                                                                

...................................................................................................                                                                                                                                

OUR POLICE. 61

Provost-Marshal oftlie Middle District, consisting of West Virginia,

Maryland, Delaware, Pennsylvania and Now Jersey. He served

under Generals Dix, Wool, Schenck, Tyler and Wallace. Marshal

Van Nostrand was born on Long Island, N. V., on April

4, 1819. He came to Baltimore in 1853. By occupation, he

is a shipsmith. The only other public office which he has held,

besides those named, was that of Representative of the First and

Second Wards, in the years 1858-59, in the second branch of

Councils. Before the disbanding of the Volunteer Fire Companies,

in 1861, he was an active fireman, and was for five years

President of the Franklin Fire Company.

" I t has been said by several historians," declared Mr. Van

Nostrand, recently, "that Baltimore was for a time, after the arrest

of Marshal Kane, the Police Commissioners and Mayor Brown,

under martial law ; but such was not the case. At no time was

the civil authority suspended. When Mayor Brown was arrested,

Mr. Chapman immediately qualified and assumed the office. The

Courts, City Councils and the city government were administered

without interruption. After Marshal Kane's arrest, Mr. Dodge

was appointed by the military authorities to take charge of the

police, but the functions of the police were continued. Barricades

were afterwards established, through which no one was

allowed to pass after nightfall without a pass; but this was a

military necessity, not at all incident to martial law; a precaution

taken against carrying information to the enemy of the number

of United States troops in and about the city. It was a trying

time, but the military authorities and the police acted in

concert, and while martial law was threatened on several occasions,

it was never declared."

In 1863, John A. Thompson, City Registrar, was made Treasurer,

under the provisions of the new law. On March 17,1864,

Thomas H. Carmichael succeeded Mr. Van-Nostrand as Marshal

of Police. The Deputy-Marshal was John S. Manly. Mr. Carmichael

had been in the police service since March 1, 1857, when

he was appointed Lieutenant of the Middle District by Mayor

Swann. This position he filled until the creation of the Police

Board, in 1861. When Mr. Kenly took charge of the police as

...................................................................................................                                                                                                                                

62 OUR POLICE.

Provost-Marshal, he tendered to Mr. Carmichael the Captaincy

of the Middle District; but this the latter declined, preferring to

resume his old duties of Lieutenant. At the same time he was

made Chief of the United States Detectives stationed in Baltimore,

and had the direction of fourteen men. When Mr. Van

Nostrand was made Marshal, Lieutenant Carmichael was promoted

to be Captain of his District, and continued in that capacity

until he was again promoted to the Marshalate by Messrs.

Hindes, Wood and Mayor Chapman. He served until March 15,

18G7, when the new Board was organized. Marshal Carmichael

was born in Baltimore, on December 16,1829. After the severance

of his connection with the police department, he was appointed

Harbor-Master of this port. He has also filled the posi

tion of deputy-warden of the city jail. From 1869 to 1875, he was

Captain of the Watch at the Custom-House, and subsequently

was the officer at the Government Buildings for a period of nine

years.

Messrs. Hindes and Wood continued Commissioners until

1866, when charges of official misconduct were preferred against

them, and after an examination by the Governor, they were removed,

William T. Valiant and James Young being appointed

to their places. The reasons for their removal were rather political

than anything else, nothing dishonorable in the discharge

of their duties being proved against them. They were both Republicans,

although neither was prominent in political affairs.

Messrs. Hindes and Wood refused to deliver to the new Commissioners

the police establishment, and continued to exercise control

over the police force. The new Commissioners, however,

established their head-quarters at another point, and began

measures for the exercise of their functions. The power of the

Criminal Court was invoked against them, and they were arrested

on the charge of unlawfully conspiring to obtain possession of the

offices and property of the police department. Messrs. Valiant

and Young refused to give bail, and they were imprisoned in the

city jail.

Messrs. Valiant and Young were brought before the Court

on November 8th, and on the 13th, Judge Bartol released the

...................................................................................................                                                                                                                                

JAMES YOUNG. WM. T. VALIANT.

...................................................................................................                                                                                                                                

...................................................................................................                                                                                                                                

OUR POLICE. 65

Commissioners, the latter taking possession of their office and

entering upon the performance of their duties. The Marshal

presented himself to the Board during the day, and made a formal

surrender of his command; and on the 15th, Messrs. Hindes and

Wood delivered their documents to the new Commissioners, and

turned over the station-houses and the other property of the State

appertaining to the Commission. In this way was settled one of

the most exciting episodes of the" history of the police under the

perfected system. The new Board began its work by appointing

Colonel John T. Farlow Marshal of Police, and Captain John

T. Gray, of the Central District, Deputy-Marshal.

Marshal Farlow received his appointment on April 22, 1867,

and served until April 17, 1870, when he resigned. lie was

born at Fell's Point, East Baltimore, and lived there all his

life. He was a ship-carpenter by trade, but early in life engaged

in mercantile pursuits. For a time he discharged the duties of

United States Steamboat Inspector at this port, but that was the

only public office ho filled up to the time of his appointment as

Marshal. After his resignation from the police, he was elected

Magistrate, and assigned to the Eastern Police District, in which

position he died. On the occasion of his funeral the police paraded,

details from each district taking part in the funeral procession.

It was on March 15, 1867, that the new Board of the Police

Department was organized under the State law. The Legislature

had elected as Commissioners Lefevre Jarrett, James E.

Carr and William II. B. Fusselbaugh. Upon the meeting of the

Board, Mr. Jarrett was elected to be President, and Mr. Carr,

Treasurer; George W. Taylor was appointed to be Secretary, he

remaining in the service of the Commissioners until August, 1867,

when he was succeeded by Thomas E. Martin. The executive

heads of the force were as during the Valiant-Young regime.

Bet'. een the organization of the latter Board and the reorganization

of 1867, there had been two changes. Colonel Farlow

had been removed for political reasons, Thomas H. Carmichael succeeding

him. But in 1867 the latter was in turn removed, and

William A. Van Nostrand appointed. Then Marshal Van

...................................................................................................                                                                                                                                  

66 OUR POLICE.

Nostrand was followed by Colonel Farlow. The police force of

1860 not having been paid, a resolution was introduced into

the City Couucil to appropriate $112,000 in payment of this

debt, and $1000 as a gift to Mayor Chapman for his services

on the Board. This resolution was a bomb-shell in

the Council, and occasioned the bitterest denunciations of all

kinds; but the honesty of the intentions of the Police Board was

not for a moment questioned by its bitterest opponent. The

resolution was defeated, and thereupon R. C. Barry and

S. Teackle Wallace, as the Police force counsel, made a

formal demand upon the City Registrar for the money.

This was refused, and the suits, numbering 389, were docketed

before Judge Smith, of the City Court for the recovery

of the claims. The costs, with attorneys' fees, amounted to

$5,000. The suits were finally compromised and the claim

settled. The Legislature of 1867 did much to increase the

power of the Police Commissioners. Since the trouble of 1861,

there had been, as has been related, all sorts of changes in the

composition of the Commission, and the public had been inclined

to regard the members of it with askance, but when the

Board was reorganized, the old laws of 1860 were again acted

upon by the Legislature, and the Board was again clothed with

almost unlimited powers. In fact, the acts which now define

the duties of the Commission, bear the date of 1867. The substance

of these laws have been already commented upon. Of the

Board of Police Commissioners under the reorganization of 1867,

Messrs James E. Carr and William H. B. Fusselbaugh are still

(1887) living.

Mr. Carr took his seat as Commissioner on March 4, 1867,

and he was at once selected as Treasurer. He served for two

terms of four years each in this capacity, being re-elected a Commissioner

by the Legislature of 1871. The duties devolving

upon this Board were exceedingly difficult, the city being at the

time almost a social and political chaos. The Board had to cope

with the lawlessness, which was the legitimate outcome of the

war. Persons of all classes at the time carried arms, and the

enforcement of the act of the Legislature disarming all persons,

...................................................................................................                                                                                                                                  

LEFEVRE .TAEEETT.

...................................................................................................                                                                                                                                

...................................................................................................                                                                                                                                

OUR POLICE. 89

was one of the difficult tasks the Board was compelled to labor

with. Proceeding upon its task with fearless vigor and determination,

it was not a great while before the Board succeeded in

quieting all discordant elements and obtaining security for the

people of Baltimore. During the term of this Board the Freedmen

held a grand jubilee and procession in Baltimore on the anniversary

of their emancipation, in which procession more than

30,000 negroes were in line. The feeling against the negro,

among a certain class, ran very high at that time, and a bloody

collision between the races was feared. The manner in which

the city was kept in almost perfect tranquility reflected the

greatest credit upon the efficiency of the department.

Mr. Carr was born at Carroll's Manor, Howard county, in this

State, in 1829. His mother, who was left a widow removed to

this city while he was still an infant. After receiving a common

school education in Baltimore, he became engaged in various pursuits

until, shortly before the war, he entered the hat and cap

manufacturing business, on Howard street. Since he attained

his majority, Mr. Carr has taken a most lively interest in politics.

He has always been a staunch Democrat, and has enjoyed

a large influence among the leaders of his party, both in the

State and in this city. At the beginning of the late war, the condition

of Mr. Carr's health precluded the possibility of his entering

upon active military service, and he remained in Baltimore

during all those troublous times. It was shortly after his election

to the Police Board that that most dreadful calamity, the

flood of July 24, 1868, overtook this city. In that crisis the

bravery of Commissioner Carr in rescuing the victims of the catastrophe,

became a matter of national fame. Harper's Weekly,

at the time, in a long article on the floods, quoted the following

editorial notice from the Baltimore Sunday Telegram, of July

26, 1868:

" It is a true saying, that in times of great public calamities, some man rises

to the position of a great public benefactor, and such was the case yesterday

with Police Commissioner James E. Carr. He at iirst sight apprehended the

character of the calamity, and he immediately sent for boats and organized a

sufficient force of policemen to manage them. He soon had work enough to

do. He led the van in his boat in places of great peril, and rescued women

...................................................................................................                                                                                                                                  

70 OUR POLICE.

and children from death. Two parties he rescued from Davis street were in

the upper story of the house, holding each a child above their heads, with the

water to their necks and fast increasing. In his task he was frequently thrown

into the water,but he continued, setting an example to his men, which they

all most willingly followed. At one time he was swept off by the current,

and the news swept throughout the city, causing profound regret wherever

heard, that he was lost, but he was fortunately rescued, to continue again until

necessity ceased for his good Work. Too much praise can scarcely be awarded

to the Police Commissioners and the police for the manner in which they

labored."

One of the afternoon newspapers in Baltimore, the Evening

Commercial, at the time published the fact of Mr. Carr's death,

and the first knowledge his family obtained of his perilous undertakings,

was the crying upon the streets by newsboys, of " the

drowning
of Commissioner Carr." Shortly after the flood, the

ladies of Baltimore, in recognition of Mr. Carr's bravery, presented

him with a beautiful dressing-gown, smoking-cap and slippers,

worked in gold thread. It was not long after the flood before

Mr. Carr began to realize the effects of his experience, for

he was attacked by inflammatory rheumatism, and was kept

housed for more than seven monthsi Ex-marshal George P. Kane

upon coming into offiee as mayor in 1878, appointed Mr. Carr

to be Judge of the Appeal Tax Court, in which position Judge

Carr served with marked ability, until March, 1882, when the

Hon. William Pinkney Whyte, then Mayor of Baltimore, recognizing

Judge Carr's worth as an executive officer, appointed him

Commissioner of Street Cleaning, a department of the municipal

government that hud just been created. Judge Carr organized

this department, and having gotten it into thorough working

order, retired at the end of the year and entered again into active

business life, where he remained until March, 1884, when

the Hon. Ferdinand C. Latrobe, who was again elected Mayor of

the city, tendered Judge Carr a seat upon the Bench of the Appeal

Tax Court, in which capacity he is still serving, having

been re-commissioned by the Hon. James Hodges, who succeeded

Mr. Latrobe as Mayor. Recently, at the death of Judge H. Clay

Dallam, Judge Carr was elected Chief Judge by his colleagues.

Judge Carr's wife, who is still living, was Miss Amanda

...................................................................................................                                                                                                                                

HON. WILLIAM H. B. FUSSELBAUGH,

...................................................................................................                                                                                                                                

...................................................................................................                                                                                                                                

OUR POLICE. 73

Wright, a daughter of John Wright, one of the " Old Defenders"

of Baltimore in the war of 1812. His whole family

of seven children, three sons and four daughters, is still living.

One of the former, the Hon. Alfred J. Carr, now holds the same

office which his father held just twenty years ago, and another,

Mr. James E. Carr, Jr., is a well-known lawyer.

Judge William H. B. Fusselbaugh, now of the Appeal Tax

Court bench, was a member of the Board of Police Commissioners

from the reorganization of the force, in 1867, until 1881. He

was elected by the Legislature to membership in the Board at

the same time with Judge Carr and the late Lefevre Jarrett, and

shared with them the great labors and responsibilities connected

with the reorganization of the police force after its long and turbulent

career under the war regime. At the close of his first

term, in 1871, Commissioner Fusselbaugh was re-elected by the

Legislature for a term of six years, and in the same year he was

made President of the Board, a distinction which he retained

until the close of his connection with the police department. In

1877 he was again re-elected, this time for four years, the law

having been changed since his previous appointment. At the

close of this term he retired to private life again for some years.

Judge Fusselbaugh was born here on September 18, 1825. He

was educated at private schools in this city and then went into

the oil and paint business with his father, whom he succeeded,

at the latter's death, in 1847. He continues this business, and

his store at Gay and Exeter streets is one of the oldest mercantile

establishments in Baltimore. Judge Fusselbaugh has always

taken a lively interest in political affairs, and has always been a

Democrat. The first political office he held was that of member

of the Board of Tax Control and Review, to which he was appointed

by the Legislature, in 1852. In March, 1886, after

Judge Fusselbaugh had been in private life for five years, he

was offered the position on the bench of the Appeal Tax Court,

which he now occupies.

Commissioner Jarrett was a prominent business man of Baltimore

at the time he was appointed by the Legislature a member

of the Board. He conducted for many years one of the largest

...................................................................................................                                                                                                                                

74 OUR POLICE.

tailoring businesses in the South in Baltimore street, next door

to the office of the Daily American. He was born in this city,

on November 28,1824, and died suddenly, while still in office, on

February 25, 1870. His funeral was the occasion of one of the

greatest popular demonstrations ever witnessed in Baltimore at

the burial of one of her citizens.

...................................................................................................                                                                                                                                

OUR POLICE. 75

CHAPTER V.

FLOOD OF 1868, AND RIOT OF 1877.

BALTIMORE INUNDATED.—BRAVE WORK BY POLICEMEN.—COMMISSIONER

CARR'S GALLANTRY. HIS TERRIBLE EXPERIENCE

IN THE FLOOD AND HIS RESCUE.—POLICEMEN WHO AIDED

THE DESTITUTE.—THE POLICE SPECIAL FUND AND ITS DISPOSITION

BY THE COMMISSIONERS. THE CHANGES IN THE

BOARD.—THE RIOTS OF 1877, AND THE MORAL THEY TAUGHT.

—THE POLICE FORCE IN 1885.

The city was afflicted on Friday, July 24, 1868, with a

calamity, -which formed a fitting close to what was perhaps the

most eventful decade in Baltimore's history. It was the memorable

and disastrous flood which proved so conclusively of what brave

men the police force was composed, and how efficient was their

organization. For several days previous to the flood the rain

had fallen in torrents, saturating the earth and swelling the

streams among the hills of Baltimore and Howard counties.

The land, therefore, was almost incapable of absorbing any more

of the moisture, when on Friday morning the rain came as if in

realization of some awful plan of nature, and in pursuance of

the preparation which preceded it.

The cause of the flood has been variously attributed to the

overflowing of Lake Roland; to the breaking of a water-spout in

the neighborhood of the Queen Spring Valley, and to a number

of other things equally unsatisfactory. But as similar floods

occurred at various places along the Atlantic slope of the Alleghenies,

the inundation is doubtless to be attributed wholly to the

heavy fall of rain which began on the morning of July 24, and

lasted until 1 o'clock of the same day. The part most difficult

to explain, is the rapidity with which the streams rose. The

Patapsco river at Ellicott City and Jones Falls, rose at the rate

of five feet in ten minutes ; the water came down those streams

like a great wave on the sea-shore. The river at Ellicott City

...................................................................................................                                                                                                                                

76 OUR POLTCE.

rose ten feet before a drop of rain had fallen there, and was at

one time forty feet high. In this city the rise was so rapid that

a gentleman entering a cigar store from a dry street returned

with a lighted cigar to find himself knee deep in a rapidly rushing

stream. A passenger car, while crossing a street, was caught

by the flood, and with its passengers was swept several blocks

toward the river. The market men were caught at their work,

and only had time to get on their benches and stalls for safety,

and these were washed away with their occupants. Terrible as

was the catastrophe in Baltimore, it was much worse in Ellicott

City. Had it occurred at night the loss of life that it must have

caused is fearful to contemplate.

It was about ten o'clock in the morning when the water first rose

above the banks of Jones Falls, and began to flood the low streets

of this city. Slowly, at their beginning, the floods covered Harrison

street, but in a moment they rushed down Harrison street,

increasing in volume at each minute, until the bed of the street

was filled with a swollen and powerful stream, whirling on in its

surface the shattered remains of ruined homesteads, wrecks of

furniture, and, in fact, almost everything in ordinary and common

use. When it reached Baltimore street the stream divided

into three currents. One rushed like a torrent to the right, the

other to the left, and the third ran with more slowness down the

center of the market. Above the roar of the vortex could be

heard the shrieks of women and children, and the cries of men

for help, as they were whirled along with the furious current.

Even carriages, with their occupants, were caught up and carried

along. For some hours after the awful scenes of destruction had

begun in the center of the city, the greater part of the population

of the upper portions, kept indoors by the pouring rain, had no

idea of the dreadful occurrences below. An extra edition of the

Evening Commercial, published at about two o'clock, gave them

their first intimation of the disaster. When the flood first appeared

on Harrison street the police busied themselves aiding

the residents of the street to carry their household goods to places

of safety. In a few moments, however, they were obliged to turn

their attention towards rescuing the people themselves. Alarms

...................................................................................................                                                                                                                                

HON. JAMES E. CARR.

...................................................................................................                                                                                                                                

...................................................................................................                                                                                                                                

OUR POLICE. 79

were rung, and men called in from all the stations, to the scene.

Numerous boats were promptly ordered from the wharves by

the Police Commissioners, and were hurried to the inundated

district. They were manned by experienced boatmen and policemen.

Most of the boats were launched from the Holliday Street

Theatre, and were sent thence, under the direction of Commissioner

James E. Carr, through Calvert, North Holliday, and

other streets, for the purpose of removing families and furniture

to places of safety. On the streets, running at right angles with

Harrison street, the streams were by no means so turbulent as in

the thoroughfares running parallel with Jones Falls, and they

experienced but little of the fierce current that dashed through

the latter. Many persons refused the proffered aid, preferring

to guard their property. In the neighborhood of North, Davis

and Bath streets thieves were busy plying their trade. They

were principally young negroes. The police captured a number

of them, who were afterwards convicted and sentenced to long

terms of imprisonment. One citizen appealed most piteously to

Commissioner Jarrett to send policemen to his house, into which

he had seen some men swim. The Commissioner and a party got

into a boat and pulled in the direction of the house, mooring their

boat at a second-story window, through which an entrance was

made. A search of the premises discovered that his money,

amounting to $570, was gone. Shortly afterwards it was ascertained

that his wife, fearing the flood, had secured the money on

her person without informing her husband. At about four

o'clock in the afternoon an exciting scene took place on Saratoga

street, between Gay and Holliday streets. A boat, in which

were Commissioner James E. Carr, Sergeant Charles McComas,

Wm. Henry Collier, and a colored man, had gone to the second

story of a tenement on the east side .of Saratoga street, nearly

opposite the Central District station-house, to remove several

children. Immediately in front of the house was lodged a large

quantity of driftwood, consisting of beams and logs, alongside of

which the current was running with fearful rapidity. In attempting

to stem the tide and effect a landing on the driftwood,

which the rescuing party thought to be securely lodged against

...................................................................................................                                                                                                                                

80 OUR POLICE.

the houses, an oar was dropped overboard, and Mr. Carr, in attempting

to recover it, was flung forcibly into the seething yellow

water. Sergeant McComas, in trying to catch him, was also

precipitated into the stream, together with the colored man.

Confusion ensued, and the three men floated helplessly along

with the tide, Commissioner Carr very rapidly, for he had been

thrown out into the current. The others succeeded in reaching

the pile of driftwood, but the Commissioner was whirled away

out of sight, notwithstanding his powerful efforts to swim into

stiller waters. A shout at once went up that Commissoner Carr

was drowned. He had been seen to disappear under the water,

and everybody supposed his corpse would be found after the

flood subsided. The Evening Commercial quickly published the

rumor in an extra edition. An hour later it was happily proved

to be incorrect, for the Commissioner was rescued at the corner

of Fayette and Harrison streets. He had been washed from

Saratoga street into Harrison street, catching at various fixed

articles, and endeavoring to pull himself out of the water, but

being unable to do so. At one time he caught hold of a balcony,

but was forced from it by the inhuman owner of the house,

lest be should break off the balcony ! From Fayette street he

was seen by a number of citizens, however. One of them, an

expert swimmer, tied a rope around his waist, and while the other

end of the rope was held by some persons standing in the shallow

water, he swam out to the middle of the street. Recognizing

the Commissioner, who was at that time almost exhausted,

after an hour's battle with the waves the citizen made to him

the Odd Fellows' signal of distress. The Commissioner let go

his hold on the house to which be was clinging, and allowed

himself to float down the stream toward his rescuer. He was

quickly pulled out of the water. The news then spread, amid

much rejoicing, that Commissioner Carr had been rescued, which

the latter hastened to give visible proof of to his friends by

hurrying as soon as he recovered, back to the place where they

had seen him disappear.

His two companions in distress, Sergeant McComas and the

colored man, who had succeeded in reaching the pile of debris,

...................................................................................................                                                                                                                                

OUR POLICE. 81

had floated a short distance further down the stream. Their

position was an extremely dangerous one, but they were rescued

by Detective Richards, who got into a boat and steered it towards

the men, persons holding it from the second story windows of a

house by a long rope. When the imperiled men succeeded in

escaping into the boat, the craft was hauled back against the tide.

A somewhat amusing incident occurred at the Gay street

bridge. Mayor Banks was inspecting the scene of the flood late

at night, after the waters had fallen to such an extent as to be

confined within the limits of the banks of Jones Falls. A great

crowd of people was still on the streets. Noticing a large

number on the Gay street bridge, which seemed liable to fall at

any moment, he ordered a policeman to clear the structure.

The officer, not recognizing the Mayor, turned on him fiercely:

" Do you want that bridge cleared?" he cried.

" Yes, and at once," replied the Mayor.

"Well, clear it yourself, then!" said the policeman, as he

seized Mayor Banks by the collar, and swung him forcibly into

the crowd.

Nothing could be more abject than the man's apologies, when

he discovered whom he had assaulted.

Captain Frey, now Marshal of the police force, then in charge

of the Southern District, who had been ordered at the beginning

of the flood to report at the Holliday Street Theatre, with as

many men as he could get together, was soon returned to his

own district, when it was learned that the floods had invaded

his precinct also, and that the bridges were in danger. His men

remained at work all day and all night, recovering property and

bodies as they floated down the stream. They took several

thousand dollars' worth of goods from the water and eighteen

corpses, most of which had been washed down from Ellicott city.

His men worked for several days afterward, looking for property

and bodies among the debris. In the middle precinct also, a

number of bodies were recovered and a large amount of property

returned to its owners. Several thieves, who took advantage

of the disaster to rob unprotected houses, were also caught and

punished.

...................................................................................................                                                                                                                                

82 OUR POLICE.

It was not until the night after the inundation that the dilapidated

old Middle station was sufficiently cleared of the fiveinch

deep deposit of mud that covered it, to permit of its occupation,

and then Captain Mitchell and his officers only used the

upper floor. On the following day the citizens of Baltimore,

with their proverbial liberality, set about to relieve the distress

of the victims of the flood. The police carried private alms where

they knew immediate relief was needed, until the Citizens Relief

Committee opened its headquarters for the distribution of

aid.

Among the methods of raising money for the relief of the

suffering, was a benefit given at the Holliday Theatre on Saturday

evening, August 1, on which occasion John E. Owens played

"Major Wellington de Boots," in " Everybody's Friend." The

tickets for the benefit were sold by the police. When the returns

were handed in, they showed a total of $3,601.50. There were

but four districts in the city at this time, it will be remembered.

The money was immediately handed over by Marshal Farlow to

manager John T. Ford, to whose generosity the benefit was due.

That gentleman, in company with Mayor Banks, proceeded at

once to the office of the Relief Committee, and gave over

the entire amount, not deducting any part on account of his

expenses, etc.

A few weeks later, when the excitement had subsided, and the

devastated district was beginning to be restored, the City Councils

passed resolutions of thanks to the police, for their service

during the terrible Friday of the flood. %

The first report of the new Board of Commissioners, made tithe

State Legislature, was dated January 18, 1870. It included

the transactions of the department during the years 1868 and

1869. There had been comment of slightly unfavorable character,

upon the number of policemen employed. The critics declared

that the number was excessive, and that taxation was unnecessarily

increased. The Commissioners called the attention

of the Legislature to the fact that Baltimore then had a population

of very nearly 400,000 persons, and that the entire police

force consisted of only 503 members. These policemen, the

...................................................................................................                                                                                                                                  

OUR POLICE. 88

Board asserted, were apportioned among twenty wards, giving an

average of not more than twenty-eight of the regular force to

each of them to serve both night and day, with no suitable

reserve for emergencies. This explanation by the Commissioners

was so sweeping that there was no further comment made upon

the excessive number of policemen. Any criticism thereafter

was rather in the contrary direction. The Board, during the

first two years of its service, had many things brought to its attention

which demanded reform. Among these was the prevalence

of prize-fights in the vicinity. Northern ruffians were in

the habit of coming to Baltimore county, and here settling their

claims of prowess in the most brutal fashion. They evaded the

law giving the Police Commission power to arrest or '? shadow"

men from the city, by making their rendezvous outside of the

city limits. The Commissioners appealed to the State, and had

the law so modified that prize-fighting soon became a reminiscence.

Another evil was the increase in the number of private

detective agencies in town. Under the most favorable circumstances,

these organizations are provocative of blackmailing.

Every good police official looks at them with doubt, and they are

in many cases used by the criminal as feelers, to ascertain what

the authorities are about. The detective service of the police

department had just about got itself into an excellent state of

efficiency in 1850, and the Commissioners were anxious to relieve

it from every embarrassment, so again the Legislature was ap-

ealed to. The State authorities responded, and gave the

department the same power of control over these agencies as it

had over all other bodies engaged in the discovery or prosecution

of crime. It was in October, 1867, that the Board forbid all

processions through the streets of any organizations not part of

the army or navy of the United States, without first procuring

permits. This action was occasioned by a sad experience the city

had early in the month. During a parade of a negro company,

some persons in a crowd of onlookers began to jeer and torment

the paraders. One of the colored men lost his control, and

drawing a revolver, fired into the crowd, killing a young white man

named Charles A. Ellermeyer. The paraders were attacked by

...................................................................................................                                                                                                                                

84 OUR POLICE.

the indignant citizens, and a riot was prevented only by the

prompt appearance of a large force of police.

It was on February 25, 1870, that death deprived the Commission

of the services of Mr. Lefevre Jarrett, who had done

very much to promote the efficiency of the police force. Old

members of the service remember him, even now, with an affection

which attests, in a remarkable degree, too, his honesty,

ability and activity. At the time of Mr. Jarrett's death one

year of his first term remained and he had been elected for a

second term of four years. The legislature being then in session

elected the Hon. John W. Davis to fill the unexpired first

term. Thomas W. Morse was chosen by the Legislature to fill

Mr. Jarrett's unexpired second term, and he took his seat on

March 15, 1871 succeeding Mr. Davis.

At the time of his election, Mr. Morse was the representative

of the First Legislative District of Baltimore in the General

Assembly, having taken his seat on January 1, 1868,

and Chairman of the Committee on Corporation of the House of

Delegates. He was re-elected in 1870. As Police Commissioner,

he served four years, from March 15, 1871, to March 15, 1875.

At the expiration of his term, the Police Board appointed Mr.

Morse Police Justice of the Northeastern District, which had

then been but just formed. At that time the appointment of

the Police Justices rested with the Board. After one year of

service, the appointing power having been transferred to the Governor,

Mr. Morse was twice reappointed by Governor Carroll for

terms of two years each. Governor Hamilton renewed Mr. Morse's

commission, he being the only Justice reappointed out of the

six incumbents. In the autumn of 1884, Mr. Morse was elected

Chief Clerk of the second branch of the City Councils, which

office he filled for one year. He was born in the city of Baltimore,

on October 30, 1829. He served an apprenticeship as a

wood-carver, and became a member of the firm of Hays & Morse.

From 1860 until 1873, he was in business by himself, when he

lost his property by fire. Mr. Morse is now a member of the

firm of Thomas W. Morse & Co., furniture dealers, on Baltimore

street.

...................................................................................................                                                                                                                                

HON. THOMAS W. MORSE.

...................................................................................................                                                                                                                                

...................................................................................................                                                                                                                                

OUR POLICE 87

The detective force under tins new Board, reached the plane of

efficiency from which it has not since descended. During the

latter part of 1870 and 1871, it succeeded in making about 200

arrests, and securing the return of property valued at nearly

$46,000. The Board also completed the police station of the

Middle (now Central) District, in North street, and plans were

adopted for the building of additions to the remaining three stations.

It was in April, 1870, that Marshal Farlow retired, and

the Deputy-Marshal, John T. Gray, succeeded him. On the 19th,

Captain Jacob Frey, of the Southern District, was advanced to

the position of Deputy-Marshal, and thus the executive branch

of the service changed its personnel at about the same time as the

Commission did. The spring of 1872 was a memorable one in

the history of the financial branch of the Police Board. The

District Stations had not been pleasant places for the lodgement

of the reserve squad of policemen, nor healthful for those officers

who were obliged to spend most of their time within their doors.

The Commissioners had been brought to notice this by the increase

in mortality in the force, and they determined to take some

prompt action to remedy it. There was a large amount of money

in the special fund, which they regarded as available for this purpose.

They purchased in 1872, the plot of land in Pennsylvania

avenue upon which the Northwestern Station now stands for

$10,000. Work was at once begun upon the station-house.

Plans were made and passed upon, and work was about to begin

on the other new buildings, when the Board was advised that it

had no authority for its action. The Legislature was appealed

to, the Commissioners showing in their report of 1874 that on

December, 1873, the fund amounted to $43,684.84. Out of this

it was proposed to erect an additional station in the Northeastern

District. The Legislature immediately gave the Commissioners

the desired power, and also ended the system of the payment of

Police Justices by fees instead of salaries, diverting the large income

from fines, etc., for violations of the law, into the treasury

of the police department. This act of the State authorities added

so greatly to the resources of the Board, that from then until

now, a great proportion of the improvements in the department

...................................................................................................                                                                                                                                

88 OUR POLICE.

have been made with this money, without resorting to special

appropriation. The Legislature of this year made, also, an important

change in the terms of service of the Commissioners. It

enacted that while numerically the Commission should remain

the same, the terms of office of the members of the Board should

be varied. "One of them," the act reads, "shall be elected

and appointed for two years; one for four years, and one for

six years, who shall hold office until their respective successors

are elected, or appointed and qualified. * * * * As the

terms of office expire as designated above, they shall be filled or

appointed for six years each." It was under this new law that

Mr. John Milroy and Colonel Harry Gilmor were appointed.

Commissioner Milroy was born in this city on April 21, 1823,

and died while a member of the Police Board, on May 22, 1886.

His private business, up to the time of his election as Police

Commissioner, was that of a brickmaker. He and John W.

Davis owned an extensive brick-yard, in South Baltimore, which

was sold out ther time he first assumed office on the Police

Board. His first appointment was in 1874, for two years,

which he served and then retired. But about fourteen months

later, on the resignation of Commissioner Colonel Harry Gilmor,

Governor Carroll appointed him to fill that gentleman's unexpired

term. In 1878, the Legislature elected him for a term

of six years, and he continued, therefore, to serve without intermission

until his death.

Colonel Harry Gilmor was born at Glen Ellen, the homestead of

his father, the late Robert Gilmor, in Baltimore county, on January

24, 1838. His mother was Miss Ellen Ward, daughter of Judge

William Ward, of Wilmington, Del. He was educated by a

private tutor, and lived at his father's farm until the breaking

out of the war, when, with a number of other adventuresome

young Marylanders, who were advocates of rebellion, he went

South and joined the Confederate army. His gallant career during

the war is a matter of national history, and finds no part in

this work. At the close of the war, Colonel Gilmor returned to

Baltimore and engaged in business until 1872, when he was elected

a Police Commissioner, his term beginning in 1873. During

...................................................................................................                                                                                                                                

JOHX MILROY.
...................................................................................................                                                                                                                                

...................................................................................................                                                                                                                                 

OUR POLICE 91

his service he was mainly instrumental in introducing tactics and'

discipline into the city police force. The good effects of his innovations

were evidenced during the riots of 1877, at which time-

Colonel Gilmor's hravery and coolness did much towards protecting

property and life from the mob. lie served until 1878, when

ho resigned and was succeded by Mr. Milroy. Colonel Gilmor,

in 1875, lost one of his eyes, the ball being excised without chloroform.

During the long and painful operation he showed great

nerve, never wincing under the lancet. In the autumn of 1882

a cancerous affection appeared on the side of Colonel Gilmor's

face, the result of a wound in the jaw which he received during

the war. After several months of intense suffering he died on

March 4, 1883. His funeral was one of the greatest ever seen

in Baltimore. Shortly after the close of the war Colonel Gilmor

wrote his book, " Four Years in the Saddle," which Prince

Hohenlohe, of Prussia, pronounced one of the greatest cavalry

stories ever written, and ordered it translated into German.

A monument to the memory of Colonel Gilmor was recently

erected by the police force and the Confederate soldiers of Baltimore.

At noon on March 15, 1875, Messrs. James E. Carr and

Thomas W. Morse, the retiring Commissioners, gave place to

their successors, a thorough examination of accounts was proceeded

with, and the new Commission began the duties of its

office under the most favorable auspices. It was given powers

no former Board had exercised, having control of the disposition

of the special fund and the privilege of rewarding

deserving policemen with liberality, and the power to pension

members of the force who had served the department for sixteen

consecutive years with one-third of their current salary. All

of these powers had been conferred by the Legislature of 1874.

The new Board immediately began a crusade against gambling

houses and other places of notorious resort, and succeeded in

securing the commendations of every respectable citizen for the

results of its endeavors. In this work the Commissioners were

ably assisted by Judge Robert Gilmor, of the Criminal Court. An

act of General Assembly approved in April, 1876, required that

...................................................................................................                                                                                                                                

92 OUR POLICE.

the census of the voting population of this city should be taken by

the police department preparatory to a redivision of the wards

into precincts, 'which should contain as nearly as possible 500

voters each. This was excessively important work for the department

to undertake in connection with the performance of its

regular duties, but the task was accomplished nevertheless in two

months, the number of recorded voters being 69,642. The redivision

which ensued required an increase of thirty-five in the

number of the precincts in the twenty wards of the city, making

the whole number 115. A second census was taken by the police

department in August, 1877, and it was then found that the actual

number of voters was considerably less than the old number, being

but 66,525. The creation of the new precincts was followed by

excellent results ; citizens were enabled to deposit their ballots

without delay or other inconvenience, order was more easily

maintained and a distribution of classes was attained whereby the

opportunity for and the provocation to discussion at the polls were

reduced to the minimum. At the elections since then, even the

memorable one of 1876, the greatest public interest was aroused

but the peace was not infringed upon in the slightest degree and

the best of order prevailed at all the voting places.

In 1876 the Board continued to devote its energies to making

the surroundings of the hard life of a policeman as pleasant

as possible. It bought a plot on the northwest corner of

Pine street and Pin alley for $7,300, as the site for the "Western

Police Station : and paid for the Northeastern Station improvement

32,845.37. At noon on March 15, 1877, Mr. John

Milroy formally retired as a member of the Commission, and

General James R. Herbert, who had been elected to succeed him

began the performance of his duties.

General James R. Herbert was a member of the Board of

Police Commissioners from 1877 until his death on August 5,

1884. He was treasurer of the board. He was one of the most

popular gentlemen in the State of Maryland from the time he

entered upon his public career. He was born on August 18,

1833, at Woodstock, Howard County, Md., descending from one

of the oldest families in this part of the country. After being

...................................................................................................                                                                                                                                

COLONEL HARRY GILMOR.

...................................................................................................                                                                                                                                

...................................................................................................                                                                                                                                

OUR POLICE 95

graduated from Hallowell College, Alexandria, he traveled abroad,

and returning to Baltimore embarked in the produce commission

business. Among the first to take his place at the front as a

Confederate when the late war broke out, his gallant conduct on

the field and his great military ability resulted in his rapid promotion

from the ranks through a succession of steps until he

reached the grade of Brigadier-general. He commanded the

Militia during the riots of 1877. His term in the police board

began on March 15, 1877. In 1883 he was re-elected, but death

overtook him after he had served less than a year and a half of

his six years term.

Within three months after Mr. Milroy retired the city was given

over to bloodshed. The riots of 1877 were in some senses even

more serious than those of ] 861, for Baltimore at the later period

was the most prosperous city south of Philadelphia, and any

trouble among any classes of its citizens was bound to have an

evil influence. The details of the terrible struggle which the

police had with the rioters will be found in the chapter which is

devoted to the deeds of Marshal Frey. In this place it will be

fitting simply to use the lessons learned from the experience, as

set forth in the report of the Police Commissioners to the State

Legislature. This is as follows :

The ability of the force to deal with our turbulent and dangerous classes as

well as the numbers, nature and disposition of those classes was very palpably

demonstrated upon the occasion of the unfortunate riots of last July. Long

periods of immunity from popular outbreaks and scenes of turbulence and

violence are apt to make people forgetful of the slumbering elements that

lurk in large communities, and confidence so engendered too often begets a

fatal carelessness. It is easy when danger is not apparent to disdain the

means of protection, but the occurrences of last July showed how great was the

peril and how urgent the sudden necessity of that hour; and it was a

matter for common thankfulness that the strength, courage and discipline

of the police force rendered it equal to the emergency and saved the city from

the horrors that were experienced in less well-protected places. There was at

that time a spirit of lawlessness abroad that portended the gravest danger, and

which could be only dealt with by decisive, prompt and vigorous action. • The

whole police force was brought to bear upon it. Some hundreds were arrested

and incarcerated in the face of the boldest defiance and most desperate resistance

; organized raids were made upon bodies of outlaws threatening to burn

and pillage suburban points of the city, and finally the spirit of the mob was

...................................................................................................                                                                                                                                

96 OUR POLICE.

quelled and the danger averted. It was a mob composed not of mechanics or

laborers, nor in any sense was it representative of the labor interest or of the

dissatisfied unemployed ; it consisted of the class already alluded to, supplemented

in a measure by tramps, and was precisely that element with which it

is the province of the police to deal.

While the whole uniformed police force as well as the detective force—

which latter rendered the most important and valuable service—was on duty

at the points where the greatest danger appeared, the Board of Police Commissioners

called into requisition the services of 118 citizens, and commissioned

them as special policemen under the provisions of section 810 of the police

law. This employment involved a cost to the city of $2,302.50. Among those

who responded promptly to the summons and who performed active duty

without pay may be mentioned Messrs. James II. Barney, E. Wyatt Blanchard,

C. Morton Stewart, John Donnell Smith, Gilmor Hoffman, Frank Frick, William

M. Pegram and William A. Fisher.

The police organization continued to grow in efficiency, adding

strength, courage, trustworthiness and solidity as the time

progressed. The discipline was exceedingly rigid, but it was

fraught with great things for Baltimore, for it made the police

machine, although complicated, as all exquisite results of the

human mind must be, still so capable of being wielded by its

officers that no occasion could arise and find it in any sense

unprepared. The members of the force besides actually working

an average of twelve hours a day—the day force thirteen hours,

the night men eleven hours—are always liable to extra calls for

special duty. They were never permitted to go without their

uniforms unless ordered upon special duty. The policemen's

holiday comprised only those three days in the year when he had

leave of absence. During all the rest of the time he remained

under command, and was required to be always at the call of his

superiors. His actual average daily service, including the time

for him to go to the station and return to his lodgings, averaged

thirteen hours a day—fourteen hours for the men on day duty,

twelve hours for the night men—and this it is to be remembered

was for 362 days in every year. The artisan, tradesman, merchant

or clerk who is employed eight hours a clay during six

days in the week, works 2,504 hours in the year, but the average

of the policeman's service is 4,344 hours. The service then as

now and as it will always remain, is trying and dangerous. At

...................................................................................................                                                                                                                                 

GEN. JAMKS R. HERBERT.

...................................................................................................                                                                                                                                

OUR POLICE. 99

the beginning of April, 1878, the Western police station was

completed and occupied at a cost of $41,909.70. The structure

was deeded to the city. On April 12 of the same year, Mr.

John Milroy again became commissioner, filling the chair resigned

by Colonel Harry Gilmor.

The work of the police department was conducted without any

conspicuous or in any sense noteworthy change until 1880, when

there was a change in the composition of the board, Mr. William

II. B. Fusselbaugh, the president, retiring. Mr. Fusselbaugh

was on March 15, 1881, succeeded by Mr. George Colton, one of

the most influential men in the State politics. Commissioner

Colton was born in Portsmouth, England, on October 31, 1817.

His father, John Colton, was a soldier in the English army and

was one of those who stood the draft for the battle of Waterloo.

In 1819 John Colton emigrated to the United States, bringing

young George with him. He settled at Leonardstown, in St.

St. Mary's county. At the age of twelve years George Colton

was left an orphan. In his early life Mr. Colton had but few

opportunities of education. He was apprenticed to the tailor's

trade, serving six years, and devoting his leisure hours to reading

and study. He started in business for himself at Leonardstown,

and was quite successful until 1847, when he lost all his accumulations

by fire. He then came to Baltimore after compromising

with his creditors for sixty cents on the dollar. Fourteen years

later he paid them the remaining forty cents.

During the administration of President Polk, Mr. Colton was

Postmaster at West River, and in 1852 he was appointed inspector

in one of the State tobacco warehouses in this city, where

he remained for seven years. During that time he became well

and favorably known to most of the leading men of the State.

In 1860 he was appointed Purveyor of the Baltimore City and

County Almshouse. In 1865 Mr. Colton purchased the Maryland

Republican, published at Annapolis, one of the oldest newspapers

in the State, having been first issued in 1809. Under

his management it became exceedingly influential. For many

years Mr. Colton has been prominent in politics, and at the

close of the war he was recognized as one of the leaders of the

...................................................................................................                                                                                                                                

100 OUR POLICE.

Democratic party in Maryland. From 1868 to 1874 he was

representative in the General Assembly from the Nineteenth

Ward of Baltimore. He was State Printer from 1868 to 1882.

For ten years he served as a Director of the Baltimore and Ohio

Railroad, besides holding several minor offices in the company.

He has also been Visitor to the Industrial School of Orphan

Girls and Trustee of Bay View Asylum.

On August 16, 1881, the board dismissed its clerk, Mr. Marriott

Boswell, for cause, and unanimously elected Mr. George Savage,

secretary of the board. At about this time the Police Commissioners

had a census taken of the voting population of the city

of Baltimore with the following results: whites, 66,824; colored,

11,924; making a total of 78,748, and showing an increase in

the voting population since 1879 of 7,239. On March 15, 1882,

the Legislature empowered the Police Board to grant each policeman

seven days on leave of absence each year, instead of three

as before, and gave them the privilege of drawing full pay for

any time off duty, when their absence was caused by sickness or

death in their families. The Legislature also empowered the

Commission, on April 3, to appoint one captain and twenty-five

men in addition to the force then existing. This appointment

was secured by Captain Lewis W. Cadwallader, who was assigned

to the command of the detectives. He is now in charge of the

Western district. Just previous to the elections in November,

1882 and 1883, there had been much newspaper speculation on

the possible action of the police in the contest. President Colton

issued a series of general orders which called the attention of thepolice

to this, and warned every member that if they should lend

themselves in any way to further in the slightest degree the political

ambitions of any person or persons who were running for

office, the offender would be summarily dismissed. The admitted

fairness of all elections in this city during these contests and since

has been unqualifiedly due to the admirable conduct of the police

force at the polls, and the avoidance of any trouble at the balloting

places is unquestionably due to the same cause. In the early

part of 1883, this city was subjected to a small-pox epidemic, sowide-

reaching that for a time the utmost consternation existed

...................................................................................................                                                                                                                                

HON. GEORGE COLTON.

...................................................................................................                                                                                                                                

OUR POLICE. 103

even among the wealthier classes. During this time many members

of the service, especially in the Eastern and Southern districts,

acted heroically in giving aid and lending assistance to the

sufferers. No officer in the department failed to do his duty in

these trying times. Numbers of them went voluntarily into the

houses of suffering, carrying food and medicine to the plaguestricken.

On March 15, 1883, General Herbert presented his

credentials recommissioning him as a member of the board for six

years, and upon taking his seat was re-elected treasurer of the

board. In September, 1883, the board was called upon to record

upon its minutes the death of Captain Franklin Kenney of the

Eastern district, and ordered the department into mourning for

ten days.

There were few eventful occurrences in the transactions of the

Police Board from the re-election of General Herbert to his

death on August 5, 1884. The General had secured the affections

of his colleagues as well as those of every man on the force,

and his loss was deeply lamented. John W. Davis was appointed

by the Governor to fill General Herbert's place and he qualified

on August 9, Mr. Milroy being elected Treasurer of the Board.

In September, 1885, Mr. Davis resigned and Mr. J. D. Ferguson

being selected by the Governor, took his seat after qualifying

on September 26, 1885.

At the time J. D. Ferguson took his seat in the Board he was

a member of the Board of Supervisors of Elections of Baltimore,

to which office he had been commissioned April 28, 1884, and

which he resigned to become a member of the Police Commission.

He served until the following March, when Commissioner Bobson

was elected his successor. During his incumbency Mr. Ferguson

took a deep intc.ost in his duties, and prepared the report of the

Board to the Legislature for 1885—86, which contained many

valuable suggestions as to the conduct of police affairs, many of

which have since been carried out. Owing to the illness of Mr.

Milroy, the Treasurer of the Board, Mr. Ferguson also discharged

his duties. Mr. Ferguson was born in South Carolina, on May

30, 7 837, and was admitted to the bar in his native State in

1851. He served throughout the war in the Confederate army.

...................................................................................................                                                                                                                                

104 OUR POLICE.

On September 2,1863, he was commissioned Major and assigned

to the Second Division of the Army of Northern Virginia, commanded

by General Fitz Hugh Lee, now Governor of Virginia.

General Lee made him his Chief-of-staff, in which capacity Mr.

Ferguson served until the end of the war. He was imprisoned

in Fort Delaware and after his discharge returned to South Carolina,

where he engaged in rice-planting until 1867. In that year

Mr. Ferguson came to Baltimore, where he resumed the practice

of his profession. For fifteen years he was Secretary of the

Maryland Jockey Club. When the Academy of Music was built

Mr. Ferguson was offered the position of Manager, and for five

years he conducted its affairs in a skillful manner. He is now

United States Bank Examiner for Maryland and Delaware.

It might be interesting to record here the condition of the

police force of this city at the period about which we are writing.

The entire number of men enrolled as capable for patrol service

was only 499, not making allowances for such members as were

for the time incapacitated by sickness or on leave of absence.

This inadequate force was expected, and actually fulfilled the expectations,

to guard a city of 400,000 inhabitants, 7,665 acres

of houses, and nearly 350 miles of streets and alleys. It was

according to the State law " to preserve the public peace, prevent

crime, arrest offenders, protect the rights of persons and property,

guard the public health, preserve order at all primary and other

public meetings, prevent and remove nuisances in all streets,

highways, water courses, etc.; provide a proper police force at every

fire, protect strangers and emigrants and travellers at all landings

and railway stations, see to the enforcement of all laws relating

to elections, the observance of Sunday, pawn-brokers, gambling,

intemperance, and lotteries, vagrants, disorderly persons,

and the public health, and to enforce all ordinances of the Mayor

and City Council, properly enforceable by a police force." For

some time before this Commission assumed office, the police officials,

and particularly President Colton, were frequently made

aware of the inadequacy of the methods used for transferring

prisoners, or transporting police to scenes of disturbance with

any rapidity. The growth of the city made the necessity of

...................................................................................................
MAJOR J. D. FERGUSON,

...................................................................................................                                                                                                                                

...................................................................................................                                                                                                                                

OUR POLICE. 107

providing some means to add to the prompt work of the patrolman

more apparent, and so, on October 26, 1885, the police alarm

telephone and patrol wagon service was established, the Board

choosing the Central District as the one best adapted in which to

prove the efficiency of the new service. A full description of

this service will be found in another chapter. From the outset

this branch of the department worked excellently and added

enormously to the power of the police force to do prompt work.

From the Central District the system was gradually extended to

two others, and soon large forces of police were available from

jiearly every part of the city. On December 6, 1885, the Board

resolved, at the suggestion of President Colton, to change the

system of patrolling posts then in vogue. Most of the offences

of policemen tried before the Commissioners consisted of improperly

patrolling beats, or the graver one of sleeping on post.

Being satisfied that this arose largely from the plan according to

which the force wTas worked, and which divided it into a day and

night force, exacting thirteen hours of continuous duty from the

former and eleven from the latter, the Board arranged for and

put into practice the system prevailing in New York and other

cities. The system was supposed to do away with the unjust

distinction between day and night men, removing at the same

time the unseemly pressure often brought by citizens to have a

favorite officer transferred from the harder night to the easier

day service.

 

Perhaps the most important duty of the special ones the police

 

•was and now is required to observe is that which has to do with

 

the elections, and especially to preserve the security of the elective

 

franchise. Elections in this city in 1885 were conducted at 180

 

polling places, usually small rooms in central locations in each

 

election precinct. In these rooms were the three judges and two

 

clerks required by law. On election days the force was divided

 

into details at the various voting places, and the Board felt that

 

to allow, at the closing of the polls, to all who might choose to

 

attend, unrestricted access to the small room, as required by law,

 

would not only impede the judges and clerks in the discharge

 

of their duty, but would also put it beyond the power of the

 

...................................................................................................                                                                                                                                

 

108 OUR POLICE,

 

i

 

policemen in charge to suppress any serious disturbance in the

 

room. Under these circumstances the Board issued the following

 

order:

 

INSTRUCTIONS TO POLICE OFFICERS IN CHARGE OF VOTING PRECINCTS.

 

1. If any breach of peace occurs while the voting is going on, arrest the

 

parties engaged. If you cannot arrest all at the time, arrest as many as you

 

can and procure warrants for the remainder.

 

2. Ascertain, if possible, during the morning of the day of election, the

 

names of the two persons from each party who will apply for admission to

 

the- room where the votes are counted when the polls are closed.

 

3. When you have learned who these persons are, if you think any of them

 

are persons liable to create a disturbance while the votes are being counted,

 

take the first opportunity of communicating with the marshal or deputymarshal,

 

and tell them what you think, and they will take steps to remedy

 

the difficulty.

 

4. When the three judges, two clerks and two designated men from each

 

party are in the room where the votes are to be counted, lock the door and see

 

that no other persons come in during the count, and take care:

 

First. That the judges and clerks are not interfered with in their mode of

 

counting the ballots, and that no breach of the peace takes place.

 

Second. That the two representatives.from each party have no words either

 

with the judges or clerks or with each other, but confine themselves simply toobserving

 

what is being done by the judges, without indulging in any threats

 

and comments. If any of the representatives of the different parties act ii>

 

violation of these instructions, place him or them under arrest.

 

Remember. That your duty is to see that peace is preserved and that no

 

violence is done to the ballot box, but not to interfere with the judges of

 

election, or to undertake to do their duty for them.

 

JACOB FREY, Marshal.

 

These regulations were observed strictly by the police forceand

 

there were no disturbances recorded at the polls that year,

 

nor has there been since then. It was on October 13, 1885 that

 

Marshal John T. Gray resigned his position as the executive head

 

of the police force and was elected to be Clerk of the Court of

 

Common Pleas. He resigned at Mr. Colton's suggestion, as the

 

latter did not believe that a man commanding 600 armed men

 

should retain that power and strive for an elective office. The

 

marshal had served since April 21, 1870. Upon Mr. Gray's

 

retirement the following promotions were ordered by the board:

 

Jacob Frey, deputy-marshal, to be marshal; John Lannan,

 

...................................................................................................                                                                                                                                

 

OUR POLICE. 109

 

captain, to be deputy-marshal; Thomas F. Farnan, lieutenant,

 

to be captain.

 

Marshal Gray was born on a farm near Belair, in Harford

 

county, Maryland. His father was a trader and farmer. The

 

boyhood of the future marshal was spent between the duties of

 

agriculture, country shop-keeping, and the acquisition of such an

 

education as was to be obtained at the private school near his

 

home. He had scarcely completed his school days when his

 

father died, leaving him an orphan, Mrs. Gray having been dead

 

a number of years. The young man moved to Baltimore and

 

spent nearly two years in the city, when he enlisted as a volunteer

 

for the Mexican war, which had just broken out. The battalion

 

which he joined was commanded by Lieutenant-colonel W. H.

 

Watson, and consisted of 400 young men from Maryland and

 

the District of Columbia. They embarked at once on the Steamship

 

Massachusetts from Alexandria, and in seventeen days were

 

landed at the military station on the Island of Brasos, in the mouth

 

of the Rio Grande river, where Mr. Gray's battalion became a

 

part of General Zachary Taylor's army, which undertook that

 

awful mid-summer march of 350 miles from Brasos to Monterey,

 

through the stifling alkaline plains of Mexico, when for weeks

 

there was not a day on which the thermometer hanging outside of

 

the headquarters tent failed to register over 100° in the shade.

 

Hundreds of soldiers in that army, notwithstanding the fact thatit

 

was composed mostly of ^outhern men, fell by the wa}v

 

Finally, after a journey lasting nearly two months and a half,

 

the army reached its destination and gave battle to the Mexicans.

 

The fight ended finally in a glorious triumph for the United

 

States troops, but the joy of victory was marred for the Maryland

 

battalion by the death of its gallant commander. Mr. Gray was

 

close by Colonel Watson when the latter fell.

 

Monterey was the only important conflict in which Mr. Gray

 

took part. He had enlisted for twelve months, and after remaining

 

in the army a little longer than his time returned to this

 

city. The first position he found was a clerkship in a shoe-store

 

at East Baltimore and Front streets. He was then less than

 

twenty-one years old. He remained in this position until 1850

 

...................................................................................................                                                                                                                                

 

110 OUR POLICE.

 

•when the proprietor of the shop was seized with the gold fever,

 

and selling out everything rushed off to California. Mr. Gray

 

then secured another position in the same business in which he

 

remained until May, 1860, when he was appointed lieutenant of

 

police. This was under the first Metropolitan Police Board, socalled.

 

For a number of years Mr. Gray had been prominent

 

in municipal politics, and he was at this time a well known

 

personage in Baltimore. His magnificent physique fitted him

 

admirably for a police position, and his appointment by the newly

 

created board gave very general satisfaction throughout the city.

 

He was assigned at once to duty in the Eastern district, but

 

before five weeks had passed he was promoted to the captaincy

 

of the Central district then, even to a greater extent than at

 

present, the most important district in the city. The old

 

central district station was at Holliday and Saratoga streets.

 

Speaking about it recently, Mr. Gray said: "It was one of

 

the worst buildings I have ever seen put to police use by

 

any city. The building was not only so old that it was almost

 

ready to tumble down, having been one of the ancient watchhouses

 

built when Baltimore was a village, but it was in such

 

need of ordinary interior repairs that it was a constant eyesore

 

to us who had to frequent it. But the greatest sufferers

 

were the poor prisoners. The lock-up of the station consisted

 

of two long narrow rooms each about forty feet long by fifteen

 

feet wide, and located in the rear of the building. The drainage

 

was so defective that sensitive nostrils could smell the place from

 

a square away. One of these prisoners' rooms was for women

 

and one for men, and into them every kind of prisoner was put.

 

White and black were mixed together, and a man arrested on the

 

•charge of violating a corporation ordinance was thrown in with

 

a murderer fresh from a bloody brawl. After a while I got the

 

police board to give me permission to erect a partition dividing

 

the men's quarters into two parts, one much more endurable than

 

. the other being apart from the source of the foul odors. In

 

this newly made apartment I placed all the less guilty class

 

of prisoners who were brought in. I was rewarded afterwards

 

in an unexpected way for this. It came about thus: At the

 

...................................................................................................                                                                                                                                  

 

JOHN T. GRAY.

 

• *

 

...................................................................................................                                                                                                                                  

 

[lh

 

...................................................................................................                                                                                                                                

 

OUR POLICE. 113

 

opening of the war, upon the arrest of Marshal Kane, the police

 

board and pretty much the whole of the city government, the

 

Provost-marshal who assumed command of the police ordered

 

the force to report to him for duty. A large proportion of the

 

men refused to acknowledge his authority. I was among the

 

number. Consequently my name was dropped from the rolls of

 

the department. Whether it was this step or some other action

 

of mine I do not knoAV, but the war authorities here thought my

 

tendencies were rebellious, and without an explanation for the

 

action I was taken into custody one day and locked up in the

 

Central Station prison. I happened to be put in the apartment

 

I had caused to be partitioned off for the better class of prisoners

 

at the time I was captain. There were many other prisoners in

 

the station at the same time, arrested as I was, not knowing upon

 

what charge they were incarcerated, nor how long they were to

 

be imprisoned. After about a week I was released as suddenly

 

and as unaccountably as I had been arrested. But I think if I

 

had been put in the other cell I would probably have died before

 

the week ended."

 

Before the trouble between the National Government and the

 

Baltimore municipal authorities Captain Gray witnessed some

 

exciting events. He was in command of the principal part of

 

the police force which protected the Union troops from the

 

assaults of the mob in the terrible riot of April 19, 1861.

 

During these riots Captain Gray did not go home for four

 

days and four nights, scarcely sleeping at all during that

 

time. After being dropped from the roll at the beginning of

 

the war, Mr. Gray went into the shoe business again until

 

April 27, 1867, when the new Board of Police Commissioners

 

appointed him Deputy Marshal of the Police under Marshal

 

Parlow. Upon the resignation of the latter, two years afterward,

 

he succeeded him. As Marshal of Baltimore Mr. Gray

 

achieved a national reputation by the reforms he instituted and

 

by the skill with which lie handled his force on many critical

 

occasions. The great Emancipation Jubilee of the negroes in

 

1870 was the first serious occasion upon which Marshal Gray's

 

skill as a policeman showed itself prominently. This was the

 

...................................................................................................                                                                                                                                  

 

114 OUR POLICE.

 

celebration by the negroes of their emancipation. In Baltimore,

 

as well as in all the other Southern cities, certain classes of the

 

white population still harbored a bitter feeling against the negroes,

 

intensified by the offensive manner in which many of the latter

 

had conducted themselves since their emancipation. The lawabiding

 

citizens, therefore, looked with trepidation upon the preparations

 

of the colored folk for this jubilee, and Marshal Gray

 

took every precaution for the prevention of an outbreak. The

 

day came and one of the most enormous civic parades ever witnessed

 

in the United States took place. Fully ninety per cent,

 

•of all the negroes in Baltimore and the surrounding country took

 

part, either in the parade itself or as applauding spectators.

 

It is estimated that not less than 30,000 negroes were in line.

 

The parade marched past a certain point from before noon till

 

well into the night before the last platoon had gone by. The

 

populace of both races were apparently willing to fight and a

 

general collision seemed imminent all day, but the police were

 

everywhere, with their eyes on every man who seemed belligerently

 

inclined. The moral influence of the force seemed to subdue

 

the would-be rioters, and though a few unimportant brawls

 

took place, the jubilee passed oif without serious trouble anywhere

 

in the city. Marshal Gray received flattering commendations

 

from the newspapers and from citizens for the admirable

 

manner in which the peace of the city was preserved during the

 

critical period.

 

After the Emancipation Jubilee a military spirit seemed suddenly

 

to seize the negro population of Baltimore. Dozens of

 

military companies were formed, which drilled every evening in

 

the streets, much to the annoyance of quiet people. After the

 

war an immense number of old-fashioned muskets were stored in

 

the city by the United States Government. Of the old army

 

muskets alone there were more than 12,000 stand. By some

 

means these arms all fell into the hands of the negroes and they

 

used them for their military companies. These organizations

 

banded into regiments and numbered themselves the First,

 

Second, Third, etc., Maryland Colored Regiments, although

 

they were never admitted to the National Guard, nor recognized

 

...................................................................................................                                                                                                                                  

 

OUR POLICE. 115

 

by the State military authorities. The South being at that time

 

in a state of reconstruction the negroes were suffered to commit

 

many offenses against the public peace which would never have

 

been attempted or permitted on the part of the whites. Before

 

long the negro regiments began the practice of taking full possession

 

of every street they entered. They would march with

 

fixed bayonets through the principal streets and clear everything

 

before them from curb to curb. Wagons, carriages, and horsecars

 

had to be turned back before them or else they were driven

 

back under bayonet charge. One evening in May, 1871, the

 

colored troops came down Baltimore street with fixed bayonets

 

as usual, turning people and vehicles into side streets, when three

 

young men who were talking together on the curb refused to

 

move on and clear the way for the procession. A charge was

 

made upon them and they were forced to flee around the nearest

 

corner. As they went several of the negroes fired a volley at

 

them, and one of the young men, a son of a well-known German

 

citizen, fell dead. He was shot through the heart. It turned

 

out that he was a Republican in politics and had been a great

 

friend of the negroes. They alleged that he threw a stone into

 

the ranks of the procession, but this was positively denied by

 

every bystander. The funeral of the young German was the

 

occasion of a large popular demonstration. Public indignation,

 

long since aroused by the offensiveness of the colored military

 

organizations, found voice in a general demand for their immediate

 

suppression. As the negroes were in a certain sense under

 

Federal protection, this was a difficult matter to accomplish.

 

The Police Board, however, made an order forbidding public

 

parades through the streets by any military organization not connected

 

with the National Guard or National Government. When

 

this order was read in the meeting places of the colored companies

 

it was received with hoots and jeers of derision. The night

 

that the order was issued, learning that the negroes were about to

 

parade as usual, Marshal Gray sent to the headquarters of the

 

"Lincoln Guard," the "crack" company of the city, and warned

 

them not to parade. Captain Delanty was laughed at when he

 

delivered the order, and his voice drowned by the howls of the

 

...................................................................................................                                                                                                                                

 

116 OUR POLICE.

 

negroes. He then stood outside of the building with his policemen.

 

The negroes formed in the street, but at the first step

 

they took after the captain gave the order to march, the police

 

rushed up and arrested a large number of them. The others

 

ran back into the building. The police sent those they had captured

 

to the station house. They then entered the building and

 

after a short struggle captured the arms of the remainder. Their

 

muskets gone and their leaders in jail, the militiamen becamedisheartened

 

and broke up their company. On learning the fate

 

of their principal company, a number of other organizations surrendered

 

their arms, and in the course of a few months practically

 

all the muskets formerly used by the negro troops had been

 

captured by the police. The arms were afterward sent to Fort

 

McIIenry, as they were the property of the United States.

 

In the great labor riots of 1877, when from Friday morning

 

until Sunday afternoon the mob of 12,000 or 15,000 men surrounded

 

the Camden Station, Marshal Gray and 300 police protected

 

over a mile of railroad property from the fury of the

 

rioters, and finally by a clever and gallant coup arrested eightyone

 

of the ringleaders and scattered the mob just as it was on

 

the eve of a furious attack upon the Camden Station and its

 

guardians.

 

...................................................................................................                                                                                                                                

 

OUR POLICE. I l l

 

CHAPTER VI.

 

THE PRESENT POLICE COMMISSIONERS.

 

HOW THE BOARD IS NOW CONSTITUTED.—ITS DUTIES AND RESPONSIBILITIES.—

 

HOW THE COMMISSIONERS CARE FOR THE

 

MEMBERS OF THE FORCE.—SKETCH OF PRESIDENT EDSON M.

 

SCHRTVER.—TREASURER ALFRED J. CARR'S DUTIES AND

 

ACHIEVEMENTS AS COMMISSIONER.—INCIDENTS IN HIS CAREER.

 

—COMMISSIONER JOHN QUINCY ADAMS ROBSON'S LIFE AND

 

HIS SERVICES TO THE STATE OF MARYLAND.—A SKETCH OF

 

SECRETARY GEORGE SAVAGE.

 

The present Police Board consists of Mr. Edson Marion

 

Schryver, Alfred J. Carr, Esq., and Mr. John Quincy Adams

 

Robson. Their powers are perhaps greater than are possessed

 

by any other public officers in the city of Baltimore, exercising,

 

as they do, an almost undisputed sway over nearly 800 men,

 

whose sworn duty it is to protect the property and rights of the

 

citizens. Not alone is the power vested in their office to arrest

 

evil doers, to preserve the morality of the city by a proper

 

enforcement of State and municipal laws, and to keep the force

 

in a high state of efficiency, but the supervision of all elections

 

is conducted by the board. The balloting for city, county,

 

State, and national officers is done under their watch, lest an

 

unfair election occur. They exercise the functions of committing

 

magistrates, having the power to hold for an offence or to

 

discharge from custody any person whom they consider themselves

 

justified in thus imprisoning or releasing. Their decisions

 

in all police matters, particularly governing the force of which

 

they are the head, are final, no city officer being permitted to

 

intervene with his authority between them and their subordinates.

 

Their qualifications for office are somewhat peculiar, as stated

 

by statute. To quote from the definition of their powers and

 

duties as announced in the State laws, they must be " three

 

...................................................................................................                                                                                                                                

 

118 OUR POLICE.

 

sober and discreet persons, who shall have been residents of the

 

city of Baltimore for five consecutive years next preceding the

 

day of their election." A bond is given by each of them, for

 

$10,000 for the faithful discharge of their duties, and the State

 

Legislature which elected them, has the privilege of removing

 

them for cause. In case the Legislature is not in session the

 

Governor may exercise his prerogative.

 

It is this almost unqualified power which when exercised by

 

men of trained intelligence, as is the case at present, makes the

 

department which they govern so potent for good. They are

 

responsible for all their actions. The composition of the Board,

 

an uneven number with voting power makes the tie ballot,

 

which has worked such harm in one city at least (New York)

 

impossible. The Board exercises a sort of paternal influence

 

over the force of men under them. It is this interest which

 

has made the police of Baltimore the finest body of men for

 

such service in the country. Visitors to this city have frequently

 

and justly remarked that courtesy, sobriety and courage are

 

the three attributes of the Baltimore policeman. In each of

 

these appears the hand of the Police Board. Men are required

 

to answer all questions put to them by civilians with civility,

 

and should there be a lapse in this regulation-politeness the

 

offender is severely punished. Intoxication is a comparatively

 

unknown vice among the members of the force. No man

 

from the Marshal to the latest appointed patrolman is permitted

 

to drink malt or distilled liquors while on duty. If

 

this rule is disregarded the punishment is not a reprimand,

 

but prompt dismissal with an unfailing closing of all hope of

 

re-instatement. The men are trained in bravery because of

 

their daring gymnastic exercises, the introduction of which

 

into the discipline of the force is due to the far-seeing intelligence

 

of the present Commissioners' immediate predecessors.

 

These exercises give a premium to agility, to comparative fearlessness,

 

to a perfect development of all the muscles, so that

 

in case an offender against the laws resists arrest, clubbing is

 

rarely resorted to, but the refractory prisoner is overcome by

 

forces that are decided saviors to broken heads and bruised

 

...................................................................................................                                                                                                                                

 

OUR POLICE. 119

 

bodies—strong arms and a determined will. When a prisoner

 

is clubbed in this city, it is only in case of an attack upon

 

the life of the officer; unless the policeman can show this

 

in extenuation for a battered prisoner it is likely to go hard

 

with him before the Police Commissioners. The Board has so

 

forced upon its department an observance of this restriction

 

to clubbing that the districts pride themselves upon their

 

record of not having an officer tried for beating, for various

 

long and honorable periods.

 

The developments which have finally brought the force to its

 

present excellent condition of efficiency, have taken place under

 

all of the various Police Boards since 1867, but it is proper to

 

state that the greatest advancement has been made within the

 

last ten years, and particularly within the last five. Indeed,

 

more improvements have been instituted within the last half

 

decade than during the whole of the previous fifteen years since

 

the present system of police control was inaugurated. Reform

 

always gathers momentum as it proceeds. The fortuitous circumstances

 

which has made this progress possible, however, has been

 

the almost unbroken harmony which has ever characterized the

 

deliberations of the Commissioners of Police. Petty squabbles

 

have been unknown within the organization of the Board and

 

jealousies and political rivalries, if they have existed, have been

 

put away in face of the one great object of ever increasing the

 

efficiency of the department. Although conservatism is still

 

recognized as a virtue by the present Police Commissioners, they

 

have not hesitated to entertain the most radical projects in the

 

direction of improvement or to contemplate reasonably the most

 

serious changes of method proposed for a more perfect accomplishment

 

of ends desired. They have always courted suggestions

 

from citizens and never fail to adopt those that seem to be of

 

utility.

 

The Board's offices are in the lower part of the Municipal

 

Building, an edifice of which this city is justly proud. There

 

are two large apartments, one the trial-room, where the Commissioners

 

transact most of their official business, the other a consultation-

 

room, where executive sessions and important conferences

 

...................................................................................................                                                                                                                                

 

120 OUR POLICE.

 

with members of the force are held. The Secretary's offices

 

adjoin the trial-room, and there is where the routine business

 

of the Commission is transacted. All the offices of the heads

 

of the police department adjoin each other, and thus a systematic

 

arrangement is maintained by means of which there can

 

occur no straying of messages or orders nor loss of time. While

 

in most cities on this continent the governing power, the Commission,

 

seems intangible and somewhat cloudy to the patrolman,

 

here it is clear and as well defined as it is possible under human

 

provisions to have it. The Board meets every morning in

 

the year, except Sundays. The members of the Commission are

 

always on hand between certain hours in the forenoon, to listen

 

to complaints, petitions and all matters affecting the welfare of

 

the force. The captains of the various districts appear to present

 

their reports every morning, and so if the Commissioners

 

desire to communicate any matter to them it is done without the

 

usual delay of telephoning special orders and similar formal and

 

useless procedure. While the Board is not permitted without

 

Legislative authorization to increase the number of men on the

 

force, it is empowered to create additional sergeants, and so to

 

reward good work with advancement. It has the power also

 

to fill all vacancies in the active force, though by a wise provision

 

of the State law all appointments to the higher positions

 

must be made from within the department. Marshal Frey's

 

appointment to the force was as Captain, and Deputy-Marshal

 

Lannan attained his office by a gradual and just advancement

 

from the position of patrolman. In instances where certain

 

officers have distinguished themselves in some important crime

 

for the punishment of which a reward has been offered, the

 

Commissioners may at their discretion award the prize to the

 

deserving person or may present him with extra pay, taken

 

from the funds of the department, but all rewards must be first

 

paid to the Board. In case at any time the Board may deem

 

it expedient to add to the number of police districts in the

 

teity, it is authorized to do so and to distribute the force in such a

 

way as will best protect the citizens. Not alone does this power

 

of controlling the peace officers embrace the police force, but the

 

...................................................................................................                                                                                                                                  

 

EDSON MARION SCHRYYER,

 

President of the Board of Police Commissioners.

 

...................................................................................................                                                                                                                                

 

...................................................................................................                                                                                                                                

 

OUR POLICE. 123

 

commission may in case of need call upon the sheriff for a posse

 

comitatus and control its movements, and in event of its not

 

proving of sufficient strength, summon the militia to arms and

 

command its manoeuvres. A failure on the part of the Sheriff,

 

a member of his posse, a commandant of the troops or any person

 

called upon by the Commissioners to help preserve the peace, the

 

statutes declare to be a misdemeanor. The Board may also

 

enroll extra policemen under pay in case of great emergency, as

 

in the riots of 1877.

 

The present Board of Police Commissioners is organized as follows:

 

Mr. Edson M. Schryver, President; Alfred J. Carr, Esq.,

 

Treasurer, and Mr. John Q. A. Robson; the Secretary to the

 

Board is Mr. George Savage. President Schryver is a tall, finelooking

 

man, whose early training as a soldier shows in his erect

 

carriage and his promptness to confront any difficult question of

 

organization and discipline with determination leading to its quick

 

solution. To this clear power of analysis, President Schryver

 

adds the judgment of a business man who has been absolutely the

 

builder of his own fortunes. His coolness in any animated discussion

 

never fails to preserve the proper equipoise and bring

 

about an agreement that is made additionally forceful by his suggestions.

 

It was on January 26, 1843, that President Schryver

 

was born, in Circleville, Pickaway county, Ohio. His rudimentary

 

education was obtained in the public schools of his native town,

 

and he made while a boy friendships which have continued unbroken

 

to the present. In September, 1861, he was entered as a

 

student in Miami University, at Oxford, Ohio, but the war feeling

 

was growing at that time with such intensity as to embrace even

 

the youngest in the divided sections of the country. Young Schryver

 

could not resist the attractions of the field and bivouac. His

 

parents pleaded with him not to abandon his fair prospects at

 

the University, but uselessly. He took the decisive step which

 

made a soldier of him and introduced him as an actor in the

 

stirring scenes of which the civil war was composed. He enlisted

 

in the 114th Ohio regiment (volunteers) and was ordered directly

 

to the front. The route of the troops was down the Ohio river

 

to the Mississippi river and thence to Memphis. Sherman was

 

...................................................................................................                                                                                                                                

 

124 OUR POLICE.

 

organizing his army for an attack upon Vicksburg, and it was

 

in this historical campaign that the young recruit saw his first

 

fighting. On December 1, 1862, the Northern troops embarked

 

on their journey to Vicksburg. .Mr. Schryver's regiment did

 

not proceed directly upon the fated city. It went with Sherman's

 

command up the Yazoo river and began its operations

 

in the Walnut hills where for a time the fighting was hot,

 

every advantage gained by either side being bitterly contested.

 

This series of skirmishes lasted until December 26, when the

 

Union forces retreated, and re-embarking on the Yazoo river

 

sailed to its junction with the Mississippi. Thence they went

 

to the White river, into Arkansas, and up the Arkansas river

 

to Arkansas Post, a military station not far from Little Rock.

 

There the Northern soldiers met 8,000 Confederates under

 

General Churchill, and after a spirited attack of forty-eight

 

hours captured the post. Almost immdiately after this victory

 

the Northern soldiers were attacked by the fevers which made

 

the region about Arkansas Post practically uninhabitable. Mr.

 

Schryver was stricken with the disease, but with indomitable

 

determination fought it and so avoided being sent to the army

 

hospital, which at that time owing to insufficient attendance, was

 

even more fatal than the field. The cry was still " On to Vicksburg,"

 

and thence the survivors of the White river campaign

 

were hurried. It was about this time that Grant took command.

 

Mr. Schryver was present during the memorable siege and conducted

 

himself with distinction. Several times he had won promotion

 

by his gallantry, but probably owing to his political faith,

 

he being a Union Democrat, the Government neglected him. But

 

finally, in June 1865, his merits were so conspicuous that the

 

Secretary of War commissioned him first lieutenant and assigned

 

him to the post of assistant commissary of musters

 

(muster officer). While serving in this capacity Mr. Schryver

 

mustered out 6,000 men. He continued to act until June 16,

 

1866, when he received his discharge from the service.

 

The young lieutenant went to his native town bearing with him

 

the honors that come to a soldier who has done his duty on all occasions.

 

A short time after his return, on April 13, 1868, Mr.

 

...................................................................................................                                                                                                                                

 

OCR POLICE. 125

 

Schryver married Miss Louisa Burns. The result of this union

 

was eight children, six of whom are still living—one son and five

 

daughters. While at Circleville, Mr. Schryver became the confidential

 

clerk of Morris Steeley & Co., then an important milling

 

and distilling firm of that city. He soon was advanced to a partnership

 

and volunteered to take charge of the interests of his

 

house in this city. Large amounts of money had been paid in

 

commissions here, and Mr. Schryver rightly thought that not alone

 

could these be saved but the volume of the business could be

 

largely increased by a resident partner. So the branch was

 

established and soon became nearly as important as the home

 

house. But the affairs of the firm did not continue as smoothly

 

in Circleville as they did in Baltimore, and in April, 1873,

 

Morris Steeley & Co. failed. This did not affect the branch

 

in this city. Mr. Schryver succeeded in winding up the affairs

 

here without any loss. A month after the failure the young

 

soldier-merchant formed a copartnership with Henry Wagner, of

 

this city, and the firm was known as Wagner & Schryver, doing

 

business in the grain and general produce trade. This firm

 

continued until February, 1876, when Mr. Wagner died. On

 

April 1, 1876, Mr. Schryver joined his business interests with

 

those of J. G. Harryman, and did business under the firm name

 

of Harryman & Schryver. This copartnership continued its

 

operations until 1882, when Mr. Schryver selected his bookkeeper,

 

Mr. M. B. Scholl, as a business associate, and did business

 

as the firm continues to do at present, in their offices in the

 

Chamber of Commerce Building. The dealings of Schryver &

 

Scholl are almost entirely in grain. Mr. Schryver has been a

 

member of the Corn and Flour Exchange since 1872. He became

 

a Director in 1879, and served on the Board for eight years.

 

He was then elected a member of the Executive Committee and

 

served for two years, adding continually to the power of the

 

Exchange. He was then elected second Vice-President and

 

served two years in that office, being subsequently advanced to

 

first Vice-President. Two more years were spent in this office,

 

and in May, 1885, the President resigned and Mr. Schryver

 

succeeded him. In January, 1886, he was elected President at

 

...................................................................................................                                                                                                                                

 

126 OUR POLICE.

 

the head of the regular ticket. He served ODe year and then

 

retired in order to assume the duties of the position of Police

 

Commissioner which nowbrings him so much credit. In his annual

 

report as President of the Corn and Flour Exchange, Mr. Schryyer

 

made a telling address which was widely commented upon.

 

The following will give an idea of its character :

 

" There are questions also connected with the situation affecting the values

 

and the marketing of our surplus products, as we find it at present, which

 

demand and should receive the careful and most profound consideration of the

 

political economist and statesman. However much we, as individuals of

 

divergent views on important questions,, may differ regarding the policy of the

 

general Government, there is no doubt that such wise enactments by our

 

National Legislature should be passed and international treaties agreed upon

 

and perfected as will tend to encourage reciprocal trade between our own

 

-country and the countries of the world with which we have heretofore had,

 

and should now have, very intimate business interchanges. We cannot hope

 

to encourage buyers from other lands for our products in these times of keen

 

competition unless our policy toward those buyers is such as to render our

 

business relations with them reciprocal; and the fact that the countries of the

 

world which are the importers of food products are seeking and finding their

 

supplies from other sources than America, is the best evidence that something

 

is needed to remedy the trouble and restore to us the prestige in the exportation

 

of food supplies which we once enjoyed. Let the remedy be sought and

 

applied immediately."

 

It was on February 19, 1886, that Mr. Schryver was elected

 

to be Police Commissioner by the Legislature to succeed Mr.

 

George Colton. The contest for the position was a warm one,

 

but Mr. Schryver had too many friends to allow his defeat, and

 

he won by a flattering majority. On March 15 he began his

 

duties as Commissioner and was at once elected President by his

 

colleagues.

 

Alfred J. Carr, Esq., is the Treasurer of the Board and is

 

most active in the discharge of the duties of the Commission.

 

l ie is young yet, but in his life he has crowded the experience

 

of a man of the world, the erudition of a lawyer, the

 

thoroughness of a scholar and the determination to gain the

 

objects of his efforts of a man of action. This last Mr. Carr

 

especially is. Notwithstanding that he is a lawyer of wide

 

reputation, he yet devotes sufficient of his time to the interests

 

of the Police Board to make him regarded among the force as

 

...................................................................................................                                                                                                                                

 

ALFBED J. CABB, Esq.,

 

Treasurer of the Board of Police Commissioners.

 

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• I

 

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OUR POLICE. 129

 

a power in the deliberations of the Board. Some of this devotion

 

to his duties he inherits from his father, ex-Commissioner

 

of Police, now Judge James E. Carr. But the most of

 

his energy, his far-sightedness and his uprightness, are his own,

 

and he makes them observable in whatever action he takes.

 

His service as Police Commissioner means a vast deal of sacrifice

 

on his part. But he regards serving the public as a man's

 

highest duty, and though the honor of filling his present position

 

was, after a fashion, thrust upon him, so devoted is he that he

 

has willingly neglected his profession to a considerable extent.

 

Mr. Carr's reforms in the Police Board have startled the shrewdest

 

politicians in Baltimore. He has urged and obtained the

 

adoption of at least two radical changes which have done so

 

much to make the Baltimore police the finest in the country.

 

He has made the men on the force regard him with an affection

 

that is not all due to the love with which they remember his

 

father. But most of all, Mr. Carr entered upon the duties of his

 

•office with the high aim of never allowing any part of the police

 

organization to prostitute its powers without a formal as well as

 

•energetic protest from him, and to assure to the public the privilege

 

of hearing of every transaction of the Board through the

 

medium of the press, first hand; for Mr. Carr believes that a

 

public officer is a public servant and his every action should be

 

made known.

 

As Treasurer of the Board he has great power, but owing

 

to his conservativeness and legal training there is every assurance

 

that he will exercise it with rare judgment in the future

 

as in the past. Mr. Carr's duties in this office as defined by

 

State laws are as follows :

 

" The Treasurer of the Board of Police Commissioners before

 

entering upon the duties of his office shall, in addition to the

 

bond given as Commissioner, enter into bond in the State of

 

• Maryland, as hereinbefore directed, with one or more sureties in

 

the penalty of $10,000, conditioned for the faithful discharge of

 

the duties imposed upon him as Treasurer, and for the faithful

 

application and payment over, pursuant to the order and direction

 

or the Board, of all moneys which may come into his hands

 

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130 OUR POLICE.

 

as such Treasurer, and shall, every six months, on the first of

 

January and July in each and every year, during his continuance

 

in office, render to his associates in said Board a true and

 

faithful account of the receipts and disbursements of all moneys

 

received and disbursed by him, by order of the said Board, with

 

the vouchers thereof during said period, which account shall be

 

verified by the affidavit of the said Treasurer; and the said Board

 

shall thereupon examine said account, and if they find the same

 

to be correct, they shall certify said account, and forward the

 

same to the Governor of the State, to be filed in the office of the

 

Secretary of State. The said Board shall retain a copy thereof,

 

with the certificate attached, to he filed among the papers of their

 

office."

 

Mr. Carr is in every sense of the word a Baltimorean; born,

 

brought up and educated amid the associations of this city,

 

he is equipped with a knowledge of what his townsmen desire

 

and how to satisfy that desire. The Commissioner made his entrance

 

into the cares of his life on October 7, 1851. He passed

 

a rather delicate childhood, but his fondness for active life grew

 

upon him as he increased in years so that when he was old enough

 

to enter school he was agile as any of his mates. His first student's

 

experiences away from home were in private and public

 

schools in this city, after which he was sent by his parents to

 

St. Timothy's Hall, near Catonville. Subsequently he entered

 

the Virginia Military Institute, the historic academy at Lexington,

 

Virginia, and then settled upon the profession of law as

 

the calling of his life. When he left the military school, he became

 

a student in the office of Bernard Carter, Esq., of this city,

 

where he began earnest study. He also attended the law department

 

of the University of Maryland, where, however, he remained

 

but one year, the routine of instruction proving too slow for him.

 

After three years' hard work in Mr. Carter's office, the young

 

student's preceptor made motion to have him admitted to the bar, •

 

and after an examination at which Mr. Carr distinguished himself

 

he was admitted to practice on February 7, 1872.

 

It was in November of this year (1872) that Mr. Carr made

 

up his mind to see a good part of his native country, so he went

 

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OUR POLICE. 131

 

to New Orleans and made a short visit in that picturesque city.

 

Thence he traveled to Galveston and passed three weeks, going

 

subsquently to Bryan and Heme. He crossed the country from

 

the latter town to Belton, arriving on January 1, 1873. He

 

remained at Belton for some time, doing considerable law business.

 

His success in his profession while in this town, was such

 

that at the solicitation of the Hon. X. B. Saunders, he entered

 

partnership with him. Mr. Saunders was one of the most prominent

 

lawyers of the State, and it was upon his motion that Mr.

 

Carr was admitted by Judge J. P. Austerhaut to practice in

 

Texas. While a member of Mr. Saunders' firm, Mr. Carr practiced

 

in Bell, Hamilton and Comanche counties and frequently

 

went out on a circuit, at one time going as far south as Live Oak

 

county. In October, 1873, Mr. Carr retired from partnership

 

with Mr. Saunders, having acquired a considerable amount of

 

money and being anxious to continue his trip towards the North

 

and home. So he journeyed for pleasure, taking things as they

 

came after the most comfortable fashion, through the north of Texas,

 

the Indian Territory and to St. Louis which he reached in December,

 

1873. From St. Louis he came straight back to Baltimore

 

and began the practice of his profession in his native city.

 

The year 1875 found Mr. Carr a warm supporter of the

 

candidacy of William T. Hamilton for governor. The political

 

contest for this nomination was a bitter one, and Mr. Carr's friend

 

failed to secure the naming by the convention, but Mr. Carr

 

became particularly prominent as the counsel for the contesting

 

delegates from several wards in this city, achieving a reputation as

 

a shrewd pleader, that went through the State. Four years later

 

he again became the enthusiastic supporter of Mr. Hamilton.

 

So earnest were his efforts, as were those of his friends, that

 

Mr. Hamilton's nomination was secured and he gained the

 

governorship by a magnificent majority. During this administration

 

Mr. Carr remained the staunchest supporter and one

 

of the most trusted advisers Governor Hamilton had about

 

him. Notwithstanding his political activity, Mr. Carr did not

 

neglect his law practice and he continued his professional career

 

with remarkable success. Beginning in 1880 and continuing

 

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